• pathogens
  • Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the generation, ontogeny, production, and selection of B cells bearing Abs with Ag binding sites specific to polysaccharides and T-independent Ags is needed to optimize the design and ontogenetic timing of vaccines directed against pathogens bearing these types of immunodominant Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • oligosaccharides
  • In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H 2 O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions deviate slightly from the general formula because two hydrogens and one oxygen are lost during each of the condensation reactions that forms them. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Essentially, disaccahrides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides are formed by a condensation reaction in which in combining the monosaccharide units there is a loss of hydrogen (H) from one molecule and a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other and a glycosidic bond formed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • carbohydrates
  • Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates , which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Intended for researchers in biochemistry, medicine, nutrition and industry, this book discusses such topics as components of bacterial polysaccharides, fluorinated carbohydrates, and carbon sugars chemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • responses
  • Anti-polysaccharide Ab responses in mice are often oligoclonal, and the mechanisms involved in Ag-specific clone production and selection remain poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • fermentation
  • Notes: ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information, but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature A broad number of food products, commodity chemicals, and biotechnology products are manufactured industrially by large-scale bacterial fermentation of various organic substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facility has fermentation, formulation, vial, freeze drying bacterial facilities classified as Biosafety Level 2 (CDC-NIH BL2-LS) and ISO 9001. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facility includes both the upstream and downstream operations when the fermentation process is scaled up for bacterial polysaccharide product development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facility has fermentation, formulations and lyophilization and handling of bacterial polysaccharide products. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • The physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cells can be affected by EPS composition, influencing factors such as cellular recognition, aggregation, and adhesion in their natural environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • meningitis
  • As an exclusively human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing developmental impairment and death in about 10% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly Africa and Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • For example, the human symbiont Bacteroides fragilis produces polysaccharide A (PSA), which binds to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) on CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • 2004) Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protects Staphylococcus epidermidis against major components of the human innate immune system. (springer.com)
  • PRP covalently linked to a protein carrier was found to elicit a greater immune response than the polysaccharide form of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • EPSs are the construction material of bacterial settlements and either remain attached to the cell's outer surface, or are secreted into its growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Since optimal contact between B cells and T cells is required (via MHC II) to maximize antibody production, it is reasoned that the conjugate vaccine allows B cells to properly recruit T cells, this is in contrast to the polysaccharide form in which it is speculated that B cells do not interact optimally with T cells leading to the TI interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • This cellular exoskeleton is the main structure responsible for the cell shape and the mechanical strength and elasticity of the bacterial envelope [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • production
  • Mice respond to many polysaccharides in a T cell-independent manner, with the rapid production of an oligoclonal Ab response consisting primarily of IgM and IgG3 Abs ( 5 - 7 ). (jimmunol.org)