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  • alleles
  • specifically, the length differences observed between microsatellite alleles are generally multiples of the repeat unit length. (wikipedia.org)
  • We did not find any associations between AR or VDR microsatellite lengths and breast cancer when we used a priori determined cutoffs (≤21 or ≥22 repeats for AR and ≤18 or ≥19 for VDR ) to define long and short alleles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 20 AR CAG n repeats had an increased risk for breast cancer, odds ratio of 1.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.38), compared with those with two alleles with ≥20 repeats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • (6) reported an association between prostate cancer and AR alleles with fewer CAG repeats (relative risk, 1.52) using prostate cancer cases and age-matched controls selected from participants in the Physician's Health Study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These associations between short AR CAG alleles and prostate cancer may be a consequence of enhanced transactivation function (7 , 8) or increased mRNA levels (9) observed in in vitro experiments using AR genes with fewer CAG repeats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We set out to determine whether prostate cancer was linked to the AR gene and whether we could measure an effect of short AR CAG alleles on the occurrence, age of diagnosis, and/or histological grade of prostate cancer in our families. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Except for XTH2, high levels of polymorphism were detected: 93 alleles (mean of 13.1 sd 1.6 alleles per locus), a mean effective number of alleles (Ne) of 5.4 (sd 1.6), polymorphic information content values (PIC) from 0.617 to 0.855 and probability of Identity (PI) ranging from 0.030 to 0.151. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • In the latter case, alleles of genic microsatellites can be associated with structural mutations that lead to novel proteins that are larger or smaller than those of the original alleles and which can have substituted or repeated amino acids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecular
  • Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of myoglobin and cytoglobin genes in response to heat stress in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (auburn.edu)
  • Among different markers used in crop improvement and molecular breeding technique, microsatellite markers are profoundly used for its reliability and time saving method. (beds.ac.uk)
  • markers
  • The use of the microsatellite markers D6S260, D6S89 and D6S274 provided evidence that the expanded SCA1 repeats segregated with three distinct haplotypes in the six families. (springer.com)
  • The increasing availability of DNA amplification by PCR at the beginning of the 1990s triggered a large number of studies using the amplification of microsatellites as genetic markers for forensic medicine, for paternity testing, and for positional cloning to find the gene underlying a trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although high throughput sequencing techniques for functional diversity analysis are being developed nowadays, the use of already well established variable markers present in candidate genes is still an interesting alternative for mapping purposes and functional diversity studies. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • SSR markers derived from candidate genes (SSR-CG) can be used effectively in co-segregation studies and marker-assisted diversity management. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • This is the first report on the identification, characterization and diversity analysis of microsatellite markers located inside wood quality candidate genes (CG) from Eucalyptus globulus . (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Although several SSR markers have been reported, in tea, the trait-specific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, leading to be useful in marker assisted breeding technique, are yet to be identified. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The present study provides a set of validated gene-based markers for common bean that are derived from G19833, an Andean landrace that is an important source of disease and abiotic stress tolerance which has been used for physical map development and as a mapping parent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene-based markers appear to be very efficient at separating divergent wild and cultivated accessions as well as Andean and Mesoamerican genepools and therefore will be useful for diversity analyses and for comparative and transcript mapping in common bean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lengths
  • In this latter study, short AR CAG repeat lengths predisposed to higher histological grade and more advanced stage prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • base pairs
  • Some types of satellite DNA in humans are: A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to several thousand base pairs long[citation needed], and the total size of a satellite DNA block can be several megabases without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • AT in ATATATATAT) is repeated at least three times, (3) there are only few base pairs that do not match the periodic motif (see Methods). (biomedcentral.com)
  • locus
  • To examine the potential role of the AR locus in prostate cancer susceptibility, the AR CAG repeat length was measured in 270 Caucasian men with prostate cancer from 133 unrelated families. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Once specific hereditary prostate cancer genes have been identified, future studies can more carefully delineate the potential role of this AR polymorphism as a modifier locus in high-risk families. (aacrjournals.org)
  • phenotype
  • Micro RNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules, involved in post transcriptional mode of gene regulation and thus effects on related phenotype. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thus the AR activates these genes to mediate the effects of androgens in the human body, including the development and maintenance of the male sexual phenotype and generalized anabolic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the hexanucleotide repeat motif TTAGGG in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Expression of tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish after bacterial infections. (auburn.edu)
  • encodes
  • The gene encodes a transcription factor that binds male sex steroid hormones. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcription factor 4 ( TCF4 ), that encodes for E2-2 protein, a group of E protein transcription factors known for cellular growth and differentiation, is one such gene that has been associated with this disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • The FMR1 gene encodes the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) which is thought to be involved in regulating protein synthesis. (brainscape.com)
  • polymorphism
  • length polymorphism and gene regulation. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Investigations of the relation between the AR polymorphism and breast cancer ( Table 1 ) have been conflicting, variably reporting that short repeats are associated with a decreased risk ( 14 - 18 ) or are not associated with risk ( 19 - 21 ) or are associated with decreased breast cancer survival ( 16 , 22 , 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • short
  • For example, minisatellite DNA is a short region (1-5kb) of 20-50 repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several families of interspersed repetitive DNA, although the two largest are known as short and long interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), 1 and it is to the SINE family that the frequently mentioned Alu repeat belongs. (bmj.com)
  • Here we focus on a class of very short tandem repeats and their contribution to disease risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • humans
  • Nevertheless, even focusing as intended upon microsatellites and their relevance to humans, it should become clear that most of these questions remain ones that will require consideration, even if only in passing. (bmj.com)
  • repetitive
  • In all RU variants examined, tandem repeats of the CGCAC:GTGCG sequence motif were also found adjacent to a C:G mononucleotide repeat within one of the repetitive pyrimidine:purine divergent domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The residual fifth is moderately to highly repetitive, and can be divided into two types, depending on whether the individual repeat units are dispersed singularly (interspersed repetitive DNA) or clustered together (satellite DNA). (bmj.com)
  • human
  • However, when used to refer to the number of repeating units of genetic information that are sufficient to encode the blueprint for something as complex as a human being, it never ceases to amaze me that this number is big enough! (bmj.com)
  • As with the human disease, an ∼3:1 bias for repeat expansions over contractions is observed. (genetics.org)
  • Identification
  • Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: Identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress. (auburn.edu)
  • strand
  • During lagging-strand synthesis, unusual structures such as slipped strands may form, which may result in expansions or contractions in the next replication round. (genetics.org)
  • In addition, stalling of the replication fork could result in double-strand breaks (DSBs) or fork reversal, leading to repeat length alterations ( M irkin and M irkin 2007 ). (genetics.org)
  • expression
  • Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges. (auburn.edu)