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  • inorganic polymers
  • This book summarizes the present state of knowledge on a number of inorganic polymers with respect to their potential biomedical applications. (springer.com)
  • In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the areas of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. (springer.com)
  • Some biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). (springer.com)
  • In addition to polysilicates and polyphosphate, there are a series of other inorganic polymers including polyarsenate and polyvanadate, the biological / biomedical properties of which have been only marginally studied so far. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, the combined application of inorganic polymers and organic polymeric molecules (formation of organic-inorganic hybrid materials) provides a variety of new materials with novel property combinations and diverse applications in nanomedicine. (springer.com)
  • The increasing demand for heat resistant materials with the added requirements of toughness, flexibility and chemical resistance has recently awakened a new interest in the subject of inorganic polymers. (sae.org)
  • Smart Inorganic Polymers (SIPs) are inorganic polymers with tunable (smart) properties such as stimuli responsive physical properties (shape, conductivity, rheology). (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoveries in the past decades revealed the potential of inorganic polymers for broad applicability in diverse fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inorganic polymers may provide greater consumer safety owing to improved properties and environmental compatibility (no need for plasticizers, intrinsically flame-retardant properties), technological and economic advancement (solid polymer electrolytes for consumer electronics based on polymers with a low glass-transition temperature), molecular electronics with non-metal elements as improvement and replacement for metal-based conductors and electronic circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent developments in the field of Smart Inorganic Polymers have been summarized in a themed collection in the scientific journal Chemical Society Reviews. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union within its COST framework has launched a network called SIPs bundling the European activities in the relevant areas in order to establish structure-property-relations for the rational design of smart inorganic polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of leading scientists with common motivation but diverse expertise together with industrial partners intends to foster transnational efforts towards the design and application of novel smart inorganic polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Mass
  • Research on developing fire-safe polymers with more desirable properties is concentrated at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and at the Federal Aviation Administration where a long-term research program on developing fire-safe polymers was begun in 1995. (wikipedia.org)

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  • backbone
  • (encyclopedia.com)
  • In vinyl polymers, so called because they are generally derived from substituted vinyl reactants or monomers (Figure 2), the polymer backbone is composed of only carbon atoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This device consists of electromechanical microactuator mounted on the distal tip of either a Prowler-14 microcatheter The microactuator is fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP) shell over a shape memory nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) wire backbone with attached copper leads to deliver a current. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general form of the polymer is a backbone with functional "pendant groups" that hang off of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • the chemical bond in a polymer backbone may be broken with the generation of free radicles by heat, ionizing irradiation, mechanical stress and chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • While organic polymers are often petrol-based, the backbone of SIPs is made from elements other than carbon which lessens the burden on scarce non-renewable resources or even provide alternatives to them (sustainability). (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • For a polymer chain of 10,000 units (a typical length), a standard half-inch-thick rope would be about 128 meters (140 yards) long to represent the length-to-thickness ratio. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At either end of the polymer chain are end groups. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For most vinyl polymers this structure occurs less than 1 percent of the time in a random manner throughout the chain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The "older" heat-resistant polymers, e. g. , the thermosets and some of the fluorine-containing materials, are not dealt with in such depth as are the "newer" polymers with aromatic and/or heterocyclic rings in the chain. (springer.com)
  • Classified according to composition, industrial polymers are either carbon-chain polymers (also called vinyls) or heterochain polymers (also called noncarbon-chain, or nonvinyls). (britannica.com)
  • The movement of long chain polymers through nanopores is a key part of many biological processes, including the transport of RNA, DNA, and proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • The unique alternating chain propagation/intramolecular cyclization process eventually leads to the single chain cyclized/knotted polymer architecture. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pendent vinyl groups have the potential to react with propagating active centres either from their own polymer chain or others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alamanda Polymers, Inc. is a life sciences company that was formed in 2007 that specializes in formation of polyamino acids to specific chain links for research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alamanda Polymers was formed in 2007 and produces specialized polyamino acids to specific chain links for research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stabilizers for polymers are used directly or by combinations to prevent the various effects such as oxidation, chain scission and uncontrolled recombinations and cross-linking reactions that are caused by photo-oxidation of polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal growth is achieved by the further addition of folded polymer chain segments and only occurs for temperatures below the melting temperature Tm and above the glass transition temperature Tg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction strength depends on the distance between the parallel chain segments and it determines the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chain length, intermolecular forces and reactive sites influence the specific function of the heparin-mimicking polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This behavior is exhibited due to the presence of certain functional groups in the polymer chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic loading can bring about failure in polymer due to: chain scission, built up heat due to hysteresis, recrystallization of material and cumulative crack generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chain scission occurs in a polymer as a result of intense localized heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermal
  • We have chosen to restrict our coverage to polymers that have received at least some degree of commercial exploitation and to details of their methods of preparation, their thermal and thermo-oxidative stabilities and modes of degradation, and their properties at elevated temperatures. (springer.com)
  • Polymer and plastic testing services include physical, thermal, rheological, optical, aging, barrier, surface, flammability and mechanical properties which identify the characteristics of your raw materials or polymer and whether they meet specification. (intertek.com)
  • For example, the ceiling temperature Tc for formaldehydeis 119 °C and that for acetaldehyde is -39 °C. Unlike stable polymers such as PVCs that have high thermal stability, depolymerizable polymers and closely related self-immolative polymers can be triggered by stimuli to break fast under moderate to low temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hollow fiber membrane Spinning (polymers) Textiles Thermal cleaning Li, Norman N. (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • As long as the heat supplied to the polymer remains sufficient to sustain its thermal decomposition at a rate exceeding that required to feed the flame, combustion will continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization affects optical, mechanical, thermal and chemical properties of the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, studies have shown that by altering the thermal transition of the polymer, shape memory behavior can be exhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the temperature within the polymer rises, the stiffness and yield strength will fall, and thermal failure becomes a possibility as deformation levels become excessive. (wikipedia.org)
  • macromolecules
  • This is because books have been available for some time on the well-established commercial polymers and developments in them have not been as marked re- cently as in the aromatic and heterocyclic macromolecules. (springer.com)
  • Spinneret
  • The molten polymer is then forced through the spinneret, then it cools to a rubbery state, and then a solidified state. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a polymer solution is used, then the solvent is removed after being forced through the spinneret. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymer solidifies by cooling after being extruded from the spinneret. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streams of viscous polymer exit via the spinneret into air or liquid leading to a phase inversion which allows the polymer to solidify. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • This conference and workshop will focus on bridging the knowledge gap and appreciation for the properties of polymer materials when applied to additive manufacturing methods and 3D printing. (rsc.org)
  • The term "polymer" derives from the Greek word πολύς ( polus , meaning "many, much") and μέρος ( meros , meaning "part"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers that have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for treatment of humans. (springer.com)
  • The composition and structure of R determines which of the huge array of possible properties will be demonstrated by the polymer . (britannica.com)
  • After the discovery of PVDF, many other polymers have been sought after that contain ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two years later, the ferroelectric properties of the same polymer were reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike conventional bonded polymers, supramolecular polymers engage in a variety of non-covalent interactions that define their properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such properties enable supramolecular polymers to construct a dynamic and reversible network, which are able to develop self-healing materials based on noncovalent bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional polymers are polymers with advanced optic and/or electronic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research in developing fire-safe polymers is focused on modifying various properties of the polymers such as ease of ignition, rate of heat release, and the evolution of smoke and toxic gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • By altering the chemical structure of the polymer, certain properties can be exhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsive
  • pH sensitive or pH responsive polymers are materials which will respond to the changes in the pH of the surrounding medium by varying their dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalent
  • Supramolecular polymers are a kind of polymers whose monomeric units hold together via highly directional and reversible non-covalent interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with self-healing materials based on covalent bonds, these supramolecular polymers-based self-healing materials can restore the initial structure and function of polymers before being exposed to damages, and can also undergo repeating damage-heal process. (wikipedia.org)
  • resins
  • In plastic (thermoplastic and thermosetting resins) , polymers are divided between those that are soluble in selective solvents and can be reversibly softened by heat (thermoplastics) and those that form three-dimensional networks which are not soluble and cannot be softened by heat without decomposition (thermosets). (britannica.com)
  • 2000
  • More than 2000 references have been published on one heat-resistant polymer system alone over a period of little more than two years. (springer.com)
  • occurs
  • In modeling a tapering pore, they confirmed that translocation occurs faster when the polymer enters the wide side of the pore. (redorbit.com)
  • thermoplastic
  • If the polymer is a thermoplastic then it can be simply melted, otherwise it is dissolved in a solvent or chemically treated to form soluble or thermoplastic derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Polymers which are structurally similar to the silicones and others such as the phosphonitrilic halides have been synthesized and indicate that, with increased research and development in this field, flexible materials suitable for use in high-temperature environments may be produced. (sae.org)
  • Polymers can be designed to respond to more than one external stimulus, such as pH and temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically the sealant products manufactured with silyl modified polymers have good adhesion on a wide range of substrate materials, and have good temperature and UV resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of this inelastic deformation energy is dissipated as heat within the polymer, and consequently the materials temperature will rise as a function of frequency, testing temperature, the stress cycle and the type of polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • brittle
  • The occurrence of brittle failure can be decreased by: increasing the molecular weight, inclusion of rubber phase, inducing orientation in the polymer and reducing internal defects and contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • This is where the polymer conforms to deformed shape and then returns to its original configuration due to certain stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • printing technology
  • On the other hand, it is also a training venue for learning the fundamentals of polymers, 3D printing technology, characterization techniques, thermo-mechanical evaluation, etc. in a relatively short time. (rsc.org)
  • materials
  • While most materials have melting/freezing and boiling/condensing points, polymers do not boil because the energy necessary to put a polymer into the vapor state is greater than the bond energies of the atoms that hold the polymer together, thus they degrade prior to boiling. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We have taken the term to mean a polymer which can be used, at least for short time periods, at temperatures from 150°C. The greatest problem which arises in writing a monograph on such materials is the tremendous amount of data that is available. (springer.com)
  • Ferroelectric polymers fall into a category of ferroelectric materials known as a 'order-disorder' material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, there has been tremendous growth during the past decade in exploring the materials science, physics, and technology of poly(vinylidenefluoride) and other fluorinated polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three types self-healing materials are illustrated here: hydrogen bonding-based, metal coordination-based and π-π interaction-based self-healing supramolecular polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dielectric EAPs are materials in which actuation is caused by electrostatic forces between two electrodes which squeeze the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fire-safe polymers also find application as adhesives in aerospace materials, insulation for electronics, and in military materials such as canvas tenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • After reductive dechlorination or debromination with tri-n-butyltin hydride they become a reversed VF2 unit in the final polymer.Therefore, a regioisomer of PVDF is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manufacturing
  • We 'Millennium Polymers' are engaged in Manufacturing, Supplying, Trading and Exporting HDPE, PP Cosmetic Bottles, Cream Jars, Flip Top Caps and Trigger Pumps. (slideshare.net)
  • Science
  • KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Center for UMass/Industry Research on Polymers (CUMIRP) was established in 1980 in Amherst, MA as a concentrated cluster of scientists from both academia and industry for the purpose of polymer science and engineering research. (wikipedia.org)