• temperature
  • It points out that though the Copenhagen Accord reiterated the commitment to hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees, it focused on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets instead of facing up to cumulative emission budgets. (hot-topic.co.nz)
  • The consequence of focusing on end-point targets rather than facing up to emission pathways is that there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2 degrees. (hot-topic.co.nz)
  • The bright surface of the ice reflects 80% of the sunlight that hits it back into space, whereas the dark ocean surface would absorb this light and the Arctic Ocean temperature would rise. (redorbit.com)
  • GISS has explained their steeper temperature slope since 1998 vs. Had-Crut , as being due to the fact that they are willing to extrapolate 1200 km across the Arctic into regions where they may have no data - whereas Had-Crut prefers to work with regions of the Arctic where they actually have thermometers. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • In short, GISS trends over the last decade are most likely based on faulty extrapolations in the Arctic, and are probably not reliable indicators of global or Arctic temperature trends during that time period. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • GISS, as we've discussed, has better Arctic Land Surface Temperature coverage. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • centre
  • They are usually hydrological in nature, and principally centre upon measures to prevent Arctic ice loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of the Plancius Foundation started with the Arctic Centre of the University of Groningen where the interest for a research study to the Dutch whaling in Spitsbergen from the 17th century was launched. (wikipedia.org)
  • extent
  • Arctic sea ice extent had been shrinking at a relatively modest rate of 3-4% per decade (annually averaged) but after 1996 this speeded up to 10% per decade and in summer 2007 there was a massive collapse of ice extent to a new record minimum of only 4.1 million km 2 . (springer.com)
  • 2008. Circumpolar thinning of Arctic sea ice following the 2007 record ice extent minimum. (springer.com)
  • Arctic sea ice extent during the first two weeks of August continues to track below the 2007 record low daily ice extents. (redorbit.com)
  • Daily Arctic sea ice extent on August 16 was 5.95 million square kilometers (2.30 million square miles). (nsidc.org)
  • As of August 16, 2010, Arctic ice extent was 5.95 million square kilometers (2.30 million square miles),1.68 million square kilometers (649,000 square miles) below the 1979 to 2000 average. (nsidc.org)
  • The graph above shows daily Arctic sea ice extent as of August 16, 2010. (nsidc.org)
  • Peninsula
  • After destroying a disabled but heavily guarded Steiner dropship, Ian and the Resistance move to the Hadra Peninsula, a remote desert region. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) Caribou persisted on Boothia Peninsula, but only because of the simultaneous near elimination of the Arctic Island caribou ecotype in the Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands geographic population. (ucalgary.ca)
  • permafrost
  • Additionally, the sea ice has a wider regional climatic role, and acts to maintain permafrost more generally in the region, by insulating the cold winter winds from the warm sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • circle
  • the spacecraft landed in the Vastitas Borealis plains within the Martian arctic circle, where it is slated to spend at least three months searching for water ice hidden away below the frozen surface. (zmescience.com)
  • The cold winters are very dark, typically having no daylight for weeks or even months north of the Arctic Circle. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOAA
  • The Arctic Research Office (ARO) a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) run under the auspices of the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, the Congress of the United States appropriated one million USD to support an Arctic Research Initiative within NOAA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It represents NOAA on the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, leads U.S. involvement in the Arctic Monitoring & Assessment Programme, and provides a point of contact between NOAA and the Cooperative Institute and Assessment Program and the International Arctic Research Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic is a joint-project between the Russian Academy of Sciences and NOAA. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOAA: The Arctic shows "no sign" of returning to a "reliably frozen region. (newrepublic.com)
  • Indeed, the dampened late 20th century winter warming over a substantial part of Greenland, particularly the western and southern regions emphasized by the network of stations analyzed by Vinther et al, is known (see e.g. this NOAA page ) to be associated with a trend toward the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation ('AO') pattern. (realclimate.org)
  • near
  • Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) on the south-central Canadian Arctic Islands (Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands) declined by 98% sometime between 1980 and 1995 - a near-total loss of a known genetically distinctive group of Arctic Island caribou. (ucalgary.ca)
  • north
  • He returned to England in February 1919 and began plans to set up a company that would, with the cooperation of the North Russian Government, develop the natural resources of the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARO is the focal point for NOAA's research in the Arctic, Bering Sea, North Pacific and North Atlantic regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • But 15 years ago the filmmaker traveled north, drawn to the Arctic by his diving interest. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Although other countries have points extending north, virtually all of Finland is north of 60 degrees north latitude . (wikipedia.org)
  • From Cape Columbia his party planned to strike straight north over the ice of the Arctic Sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • elsewhere
  • would be likely by the end of August," Ted Scambos, lead scientist at the data center which monitors ice in the Arctic and elsewhere, told Reuters . (redorbit.com)
  • vessels
  • The tours take passengers to the Arctic and Antarctic regions with different points of destinations in which they can go ashore, mostly by small boats from the main vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the commanding position that the Point offered over the entire upper Nushagak Bay, it suffered from extensive and growing mud flats that limited access to vessels except during the bay's extreme high tides. (wikipedia.org)
  • recent
  • Projections of sea ice loss that are adjusted to take account of recent rapid Arctic shrinkage suggest that the Arctic will likely be free of summer sea ice sometime between 2059 and 2078. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show results from some recent work from submarines, and speculate that the trends towards retreat and thinning will inevitably lead to an eventual loss of all ice in summer, which can be described as a 'tipping point' in that the former situation, of an Arctic covered with mainly multi-year ice, cannot be retrieved. (springer.com)
  • The work by Vinther and colleagues in Southern Greenland is therefore key to helping calibrate the Greenland ice core records, and impressively, the correlations to the older data are as good as to the recent record, allowing us to have a little more confidence in the even longer term proxy data for this region. (realclimate.org)
  • summer
  • The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of 2007 states that "in some projections, Arctic late-summer sea ice disappears almost entirely by the latter part of the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scary thought behind all of this is that scientists have been predicting, based on past data, that the Arctic Sea would be ice free in the summer months by 2100. (redorbit.com)
  • Arctic May be Ice-Free in Summer of 2070 -This is from 2004 and shows how quickly events have moved on. (indymedia.ie)
  • high
  • At one point during the campaign, Ian's uncle Peter is murdered by Duncan Burke, a high-ranking officer in Katrina's forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changing levels of predation by the High Arctic gray wolf (Canis lupus arctos) compound the uncertainty. (ucalgary.ca)
  • past
  • In the past 5 years there have been major changes happening up in the Arctic. (indymedia.ie)
  • This scenario would take us past extinction danger point which is reckoned for a rise of 6 o Celsius or more would be close to certainty. (indymedia.ie)
  • policy
  • Anderson points out that that policy advisers and policy makers are working on the basis of na├»ve and inappropriate assumptions which simply don't obtain in reality. (hot-topic.co.nz)
  • annual
  • The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration released its annual Arctic Report Card on Tuesday, and boy is it not great. (newrepublic.com)