• eukaryotes
  • Under this definition, there would only be two broad classes of organelles (i.e. those that contain their own DNA, and have originated from endosymbiotic bacteria): mitochondria (in almost all eukaryotes) plastids (e.g. in plants, algae, and some protists). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine
  • Cysteine is the rate-limiting factor in cellular glutathione biosynthesis, since this amino acid is relatively rare in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells make glutathione in two adenosine triphosphate-dependent steps: First, gamma-glutamylcysteine is synthesized from L-glutamate and cysteine via the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate cysteine ligase, GCL). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of these transporters is not yet fully solved, whether sulfate itself or metabolic products of the sulfur assimilation (O-acetylserine, cysteine, glutathione) act as signals in the regulation of sulfate uptake by the root and its transport to the shoot, and in the expression of the sulfate transporters involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • Liu, Jin-Yuan 2006-08-30 00:00:00 A novel cDNA of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), which encodes a functional protein capable of complementing the yeast PHGHX-deletion mutant, was recently discovered in radish (Raphanus sativus) and designated as RsPHGPx [Yang X-D, Li W-J, Liu J-Y (2005) Biochim Biophys Acta 1728:199- (deepdyve.com)
  • proteins
  • Using redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins targeted to the mitochondria or plastids, we show that, relative to wild-type leaves, plastids are more reduced in both ISE1 - and ISE2 -silenced leaves, whereas mitochondria are more oxidized in ISE1 -silenced leaves. (plantphysiol.org)
  • genes
  • Chloroplast genes retain prokaryotic genetic organization, and are transcribed from bacterial-type gene promoters by a eubacterial multisubunit RNA polymerase known as the plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP) [ 10 - 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Firstly, we show that basal expression of JA-related genes is correlated with leaf glutathione content when the latter is manipulated either genetically or pharmacologically. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetically blocking this accumulation in a cat2 cad2 line largely annuls H2 O2 -induced expression of JA-linked genes, and this effect can be rescued by exogenously supplying glutathione. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cytochrome P450, glucosyl transferase and glutathione- S -transferase genes were found to be up-regulated in response to pinoxaden application under both control and high-temperature conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • sulfur
  • Plants contain a large variety of other organic sulfur compounds, as thiols (glutathione), sulfolipids and secondary sulfur compounds (alliins, glucosinolates, phytochelatins), which play an important role in physiology and protection against environmental stress and pests. (wikipedia.org)
  • content
  • Bittsanszky A, Kömives T, Gullner G, Gyulai G, Kiss J, Heszky L, Radimszky L, Rennenberg H (2005) Ability of transgenic poplars with elevated glutathione content to tolerate zinc(2+) stress. (springer.com)
  • evidence
  • This proposed model reconciles previous contradictory evidence relating ROS production to PD transport and supports accumulating evidence that mitochondria and plastids are crucial regulators of PD function. (plantphysiol.org)