Loading...


  • green alga
  • Here, to gain insight in the evolution of organelle nucleotide landscape, we present the GC-rich mitochondrial and plastid DNAs from the trebouxiophyte green alga Coccomyxa sp. (jove.com)
  • The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte algae, which are now placed in separate divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trentepohlia is a filamentous green alga that can live independently on humid soil, rocks or tree bark or form the photosymbiont in lichens of the family Graphidaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free-living cyanobacteria are present in the water of rice paddies, and cyanobacteria can be found growing as epiphytes on the surfaces of the green alga, Chara, where they may fix nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Viruses invade living cells - bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, and animals (including humans) - and use their hosts' metabolic and genetic machinery to produce thousands of new virus particles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other fungi survive as parasitic decomposers, absorbing their food, in solution, through their cell walls. (eol.org)
  • Aquatic fungi in this group are predominantly found on submerged wood, but others are free floating or found on sediments and algae. (eol.org)
  • however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which are made of chitin, and of bacteria, which are made of peptidoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species of green algae, particularly of genera Trebouxia of the class Trebouxiophyceae and Trentepohlia (class Ulvophyceae), can be found in symbiotic associations with fungi to form lichens. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Examples of GC-rich organelle DNAs are limited to a small but eclectic list of species, including certain green algae. (jove.com)
  • Yellow-green algae (class Xanthophyceae), class of approximately 600 species of algae in the division Chromophyta, most of which inhabit fresh water. (britannica.com)
  • class of about 1,500 species of algae in the division Chromophyta, common in cold waters along continental coasts. (britannica.com)
  • The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and consist of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts In the system of Adl et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single alga typically has just one holdfast, although some species have more than one stipe growing from their holdfast. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land plants in the streptophyte lineage, some species within their relatives Coleochaetales, Charales and Zygnematales, as well as within subaerial species of the algae order Trentepohliales, and appears to be essential in the adaptation towards a terrestrial life style. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquatic species are primarily found in sediments or on algae, but some species are also free floating. (eol.org)
  • Some Cryptomonas species may also form immotile resting stages with rigid cell walls (cysts) to survive unfavorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dinophysis acuminata is a photosynthesising Dinophysis species by acquiring secondary plastids from consuming the ciliate Myrionecta rubra, which in turn had ingested them from the alga Teleaulax amphioxeia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taxonomic identification of Dinophysis species is largely based on cell contouring, size and shape of their large hypothecal plates and the shape of their left sulcal lists and ribs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata evolved independently in several lineages, and species that have these structures include members of the Charophyceae, Charales, Coleochaetales and Phaeophyceae (which are all algae), as well as all embryophytes, better known as land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are about 8,000 species of green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species live most of their lives as single cells, while other species form coenobia (colonies), long filaments, or highly differentiated macroscopic seaweeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chlorophyta include the early diverging prasinophyte lineages and the core Chlorophyta, which contain the majority of described species of green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charophytes
  • As the green algae clades get further resolved, the embryophytes, which are a deep charophyte branch, are included in "algae", "green algae" and "Charophytes", or these terms are replaced by cladistic terminology such as Archaeplastida, Plantae, Viridiplantae or streptophytes, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • among the algae
  • The unique habit among the algae of protecting the overwintering zygote within the tissues of the parent gametophyte is one of several characteristics of Coleochaetales that suggest that they are a sister group to the embryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • conspicuous
  • The cells are uninucleate and contain one or two stellate plastids with a conspicuous pyrenoid in the exact center of the plastid - the uninitiated often confuse the pyrenoid with the nucleus. (umontreal.ca)
  • The rockweeds and leathery kelps are often the most conspicuous algae in their habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viridiplantae
  • If one defines the kingdom Plantae to mean the Archaeplastida, the red algae will be part of that kingdom If Plantae are defined more narrowly, to be the Viridiplantae, then the red algae might be considered their own kingdom, or part of the kingdom Protista. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viridiplantae, together with red algae and glaucophyte algae, form the supergroup Primoplantae, also known as Archaeplastida or Plantae sensu lato. (wikipedia.org)
  • chlorophyte
  • The Coccomyxa organelle genomes are also used for phylogenetic analyses, which highlight the complexities in trying to resolve the interrelationships among the core chlorophyte green algae, but ultimately favour a sister relationship between the Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae, with the Trebouxiophyceae branching at the base of the chlorophyte crown. (jove.com)
  • thick-walled
  • Zygomycota get their name from the production of thick-walled sexual structures called zygosporangia, which can remain dormant for long periods. (eol.org)
  • and thick-walled heterocysts - which contain the enzyme nitrogenase, vital for nitrogen fixation in an anaerobic environment due to its sensitivity to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeplastida
  • 2005 have provided evidence that is in agreement for monophyly in the Archaeplastida (including red algae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the Archaeplastida typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main evidence that the Archaeplastida form a monophyletic group comes from genetic studies, which indicate their plastids probably had a single origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enrichment of novel red algal genes in a recent study demonstrates a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly and an equally strong signal of gene sharing history between the red/green algae and other lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • They make their entrance into the cytoplasm either from outside the cell through the cell membrane via calcium channels (such as calcium-binding proteins or voltage-gated calcium channels), or from some internal calcium storages such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • All green algae have mitochondria with flat cristae. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • Schematic tree of the 6 eukaryotic super-groups as described by Adl and collaborators showing the distribution of the major lineages that acquired a plastid through endosymbiosis (bold) and those of these lineages that include marine phytoplanktonic representatives (bold. (scribd.com)
  • genomes
  • Plasmodesmata have been shown to transport proteins (including transcription factors), short interfering RNA, messenger RNA, viroids, and viral genomes from cell to cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • belong
  • The coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloplasts
  • leucoplasts sometimes differentiate into more specialized plastids: Amyloplasts: for starch storage and detecting gravity (for geotropism) Elaioplasts: for storing fat Proteinoplasts: for storing and modifying protein Tannosomes: for synthesizing and producing tannins and polyphenols Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate, or redifferentiate, between these and other forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of plastids are the amyloplasts, specialized for starch storage, elaioplasts specialized for fat storage, and chromoplasts specialized for synthesis and storage of pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbes
  • Microorganism" is a general term that becomes more understandable if it is divided into its principal types - bacteria, yeasts, molds, protozoa, algae, and rickettsia - predominantly unicellular microbes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using MA medium, growth rates are not particularly fast, with a doubling time (the time it takes a culture of microbes to double in cells per unit volume) of approximately 32 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • The blades consist of one or two rigorously coplanar layers of cells. (umontreal.ca)
  • They may consist of delicate felt-like strands of cells, as in Ectocarpus, or of foot-long flattened branches resembling a fan, as in Padina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reproductive organs consist of antheridia and oogonia, though the structures of these organs differ considerably from the corresponding organs in other algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consist of discoid plastids, bipolar frustules with elliptical valve face. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Cryptomonad flagella are inserted parallel to one another, and are covered by bipartite hairs called mastigonemes, formed within the endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary plasmodesmata are formed when portions of the endoplasmic reticulum are trapped across the middle lamella as new cell wall is laid down between two newly divided plant cells and these eventually become the cytoplasmic connections between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The desmotubule is a tube of appressed (flattened) endoplasmic reticulum that runs between two adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized cell-to-cell communication pathways known as plasmodesmata, pores in the primary cell wall through which the plasmalemma and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent cells are continuous. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • They have a common evolutionary origin and possess a double-stranded DNA molecule that is circular, like that of prokaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Plant nuclear genes encode the vast majority of plastid proteins, and the expression of plastid genes and nuclear genes is tightly co-regulated to coordinate proper development of plastids in relation to cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive searches for plastid genes in both Rafflesia and Polytomella yielded no results, however the conclusion that their plastomes are entirely missing is still controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • lacks
  • The primary wall lacks lignin that would make it tough and rigid, so this cell type provides what could be called plastic support - support that can hold a young stem or petiole into the air, but in cells that can be stretched as the cells around them elongate. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Pollen grains have a hard coat that protects the sperm cells during the process of their movement between the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. (scribd.com)
  • but each pollen grain contains vegetative (nonreproductive) cells (only a single cell in most flowering plants but several in other seed plants) and a generative (reproductive) cell containing two nuclei: a tube nucleus (that produces the pollen tube) and a generative nucleus (that divides to form the two sperm cells). (scribd.com)
  • This is because plants are believed to have evolved from the green algae. (wisc.edu)
  • In the group cell division is associated with a phragmoplast as we have seen in plants. (wisc.edu)
  • Like a root system in plants, a holdfast serves to anchor the alga in place on the substrate where it grows, and thus prevents the alga from being carried away by the current. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Embryophyta are informally called land plants because they live primarily in terrestrial habitats, while the related green algae are primarily aquatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, these plants are sometimes termed 'metaphytes' and classified as the group Metaphyta (but Haeckel's definition of Metaphyta places some algae in this group). (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, many chromalveolates were considered plants, because of their cell walls, photosynthetic ability, and in some cases their morphological resemblance to the land plants (Embryophyta). (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • There are two forms of plasmodesmata: primary plasmodesmata, which are formed during cell division, and secondary plasmodesmata, which can form between mature cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata can also be inserted into existing cell walls between non-dividing cells (secondary plasmodesmata) A typical plant cell may have between 103 and 105 plasmodesmata connecting it with adjacent cells equating to between 1 and 10 per µm2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenchyma cells have thin, permeable primary walls enabling the transport of small molecules between them, and their cytoplasm is responsible for a wide range of biochemical functions such as nectar secretion, or the manufacture of secondary products that discourage herbivory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells develop an extensive secondary cell wall that is laid down on the inside of the primary cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • chloroplast
  • The unusual feature of the cell is that it contains reddish-brown chloroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanidioschyzon merolae is a small (2μm), club-shaped, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments (pH 1.5, 45 °C). The cellular architecture of C. merolae is extremely simple, containing only a single chloroplast and a single mitochondrion and lacking a vacuole and cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Although bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and molds are cells that must be magnified in order to see them, when cultured on solid media that allow their growth and multiplication, they form visible colonies consisting of millions of cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • form
  • With carbon dioxide, water, and the help of specialized enzymes , the light energy absorbed creates chemical energy in a form the cell can use to carry on its processes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In plant cells, long thin protuberances called stromules sometimes form and extend from the main plastid body into the cytosol and interconnect several plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • some of the cells grow into nutritive cells that supply nutrition for the microspores that form by meiotic division from the sporogenous cells. (scribd.com)
  • four groups of sporogenous cells form with in the anther. (scribd.com)
  • Heterocysts are specialized cells harboring nitrogen fixation, a process by which atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) is converted to a biologically useful form (NH 3 ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cells are flattened and interlock by two apical elevations (horns) to form long curved colony formations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar structures, called gap junctions and membrane nanotubes, interconnect animal cells and stromules form between plastids in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell walls perform many essential functions: they provide shape to form the tissue and organs of the plant, and play an important role in intercellular communication and plant-microbe interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can occur as planktonic cells or form phototrophic biofilms. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Change itself is random, where each change occurs in a single organism, usually in the single cell from which the organism grows. (wordpress.com)
  • resemble
  • These cells mature from meristem derivatives that initially resemble parenchyma, but differences quickly become apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • algal
  • However, the plastids are very different from red algal plastids: phycobiliproteins are present but only in the thylakoid lumen and are present only as phycoerythrin or phycocyanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A close examination of algal spores shows that none have trilete spores, either because their walls are not resistant enough, or in those rare cases where it is, the spores disperse before they are squashed enough to develop the mark, or don't fit into a tetrahedral tetrad. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts In the system of Adl et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enrichment of novel red algal genes in a recent study demonstrates a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly and an equally strong signal of gene sharing history between the red/green algae and other lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • unicellular
  • They reproduce asexually by the development of a septum between the two cell-halves or semi-cells (in unicellular forms, each daughter-cell develops the other semi-cell afresh) and sexually by conjugation, or the fusion of the entire cell-contents of the two conjugating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that pseudofungi descend from unicellular heterokont chromist algae which lost their plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this, a unicellular heterotroph proto-pseudofungi (probably a mushroom parasite) got its fungal genes through horizontal gene transfer, which would have led to the development of convergent fungal multicellularity, explaining why the cell wall is sometimes made of both chitin and cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Sizes of viruses, cells, and organisms. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • However, the case that the organisms themselves are closely related is not very strong, and they may have acquired plastids independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristic concentrations of calcium in model organisms are: in E. coli 3mM (bound), 100nM (free), in budding yeast 2mM (bound), in mammalian cell 10-100nM (free) and in blood plasma 2mM. (wikipedia.org)
  • among the algae
  • The unique habit among the algae of protecting the overwintering zygote within the tissues of the parent gametophyte is one of several characteristics of Coleochaetales that suggest that they are a sister group to the embryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • Some Cryptomonas species may also form immotile resting stages with rigid cell walls (cysts) to survive unfavorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Golden algae is also commonly used to refer to a single species, Prymnesium parvum, which causes fish kills. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two common species of the heterotrophic green alga Prototheca are pathogenic and can cause the disease protothecosis in humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • One species of Elysia feeds on a seasonally-calcifying alga. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land plants in the streptophyte lineage, some species within their relatives Coleochaetales, Charales and Zygnematales, as well as within subaerial species of the algae order Trentepohliales, and appears to be essential in the adaptation towards a terrestrial life style. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and consist of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotes
  • however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • mitosis, one cell divides to produce two genetically-identical cells. (mcgill.ca)
  • In Polykrikos, well-defined fibrous ribbons are involved in nuclear-flagellar connections, and anchoring to flagellar apparatus might serve in orientation of the nucleus in relation to flagella during processes of movement, mitosis and cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics used for the classification of Chlorophyta are: type of zoid, mitosis (karyokynesis), cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides and more recently genetic data. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • The great diversity of CHX genes in land plants compared to metazoa, fungi, or algae would imply a significant role of ion and pH homeostasis at dynamic endomembranes in the vegetative and reproductive success of flowering plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • No matter which type of cell we are considering, all cells have certain features in common, such as a cell membrane, DNA and RNA, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • They make their entrance into the cytoplasm either from outside the cell through the cell membrane via calcium channels (such as calcium-binding proteins or voltage-gated calcium channels), or from some internal calcium storages such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorophyta
  • 2012. Note that many algae previously classified in Chlorophyta are placed here in Streptophyta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green tides result from N. scintillans populations having green-pigmented prasinophytes (green algae, subphylum Chlorophyta) living in their vacuoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeplastida
  • 2005 have provided evidence that is in agreement for monophyly in the Archaeplastida (including red algae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The main evidence that the Archaeplastida form a monophyletic group comes from genetic studies, which indicate their plastids probably had a single origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • dinoflagellates
  • Early-branching polykrikoids, Polykrikos geminatum and P. hartmanii, have three-membrane plastids with triple stacked thylakoids that are indicative of secondary peridinin-type plastids common for dinoflagellates. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In most cells from the vegetative tissues of the plant body, the central vacuole occupies much of the volume and is essential for much of the physiology of the organism. (plantcell.org)
  • In some cell types, defense or signal compounds are stored in the vacuole, particularly within specialized cells located in strategically favorable tissues such as the leaf epidermis. (plantcell.org)
  • Therefore, cell division in the meristem is required to provide new cells for expansion and differentiation of tissues and initiation of new organs, providing the basic structure of the plant body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • flagella
  • Cryptomonad flagella are inserted parallel to one another, and are covered by bipartite hairs called mastigonemes, formed within the endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small scales may also be present on the flagella and cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are now usually restricted to a core group of closely related forms, distinguished primarily by the structure of the flagella in motile cells, also treated as an order Chromulinales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "primary" cell of chrysophytes contains two specialized flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Plant hormones, which are secondary metabolites, are often used to regulate the metabolic activity within cells and oversee the overall development of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • assuming that the Charales' habit has changed little since the divergence of lineages, this means that the land plants evolved from a branched, filamentous alga dwelling in shallow fresh water, perhaps at the edge of seasonally desiccating pools. (wikipedia.org)
  • vacuoles
  • In contrast, AtNHX1-4 subtype evolved in plant cells to handle ion homeostasis of vacuoles. (frontiersin.org)
  • The vacuoles of plant cells are multifunctional organelles that are central to cellular strategies of plant development. (plantcell.org)
  • They share some of their basic properties with the vacuoles of algae and yeast and the lysosomes of animal cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Plant cell vacuoles were discovered with the early microscope and, as indicated in the etymology of the word, originally defined as a cell space empty of cytoplasmic matter. (plantcell.org)
  • In this review, vacuoles are provisionally defined as the intracellular compartments that arise as a terminal product of the secretory pathway in plant cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Plant cell vacuoles are widely diverse in form, size, content, and functional dynamics, and a single cell may contain more than one kind of vacuole. (plantcell.org)
  • In regard to the latter function, vacuoles are acidic and contain hydrolytic enzymes analogous to the lysosomal enzymes of animal cells. (plantcell.org)
  • As early as last century, it was observed that many pigments (e.g., anthocyanins) are localized in the vacuoles of epidermal cells from flowers, leaves, and stems. (plantcell.org)
  • membrane
  • These single-cell measurements of cytosolic and vacuolar ion activities allow calculation of thermodynamic gradients that can be used to reveal (or predict) the type of active transporters at both the plasma membrane and tonoplast. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12554708 Triple-barrelled microelectrodes measuring K(+) activity (a(K)), pH and membrane potential were used to make quantitative measurements of vacuolar and cytosolic a(K) in epidermal and mesophyll cells of barley plants grown in nutrient solution with 0 or 200 mM added NaCl. (jove.com)
  • Some cells are encased in a rigid wall, which constrains their shape, while others have a flexible cell membrane (and no rigid cell wall). (estrellamountain.edu)
  • The cell membrane functions as a semi-permeable barrier, allowing a very few molecules across it while fencing the majority of organically produced chemicals inside the cell. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • Cholesterol aids in the flexibility of a cell membrane. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • The outer surface of the membrane will tend to be rich in glycolipids, which have their hydrophobic tails embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane and their heads exposed outside the cell. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • Embryophyte cells also generally have an enlarged central vacuole enclosed by a vacuolar membrane or tonoplast, which maintains cell turgor and keeps the plant rigid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In electrically excitable cells, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles and neurons, membrane depolarization leads to a Ca2+ transient with cytosolic Ca2+ concentration reaching 400 nM and above. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) obtains energy to pump calcium out of the cell by hydrolysing adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulate
  • Oleaginous algae accumulate storage carbon and energy in the form of neutral lipids, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), which need to be extracted from intracellular oil bodies by disrupting the cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Contain
  • and thick-walled heterocysts - which contain the enzyme nitrogenase, vital for nitrogen fixation in an anaerobic environment due to its sensitivity to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their walls contain sporopollenin - further evidence of an embryophytic affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • motile
  • The cells in a hormogonium are often thinner than in the vegetative state, and the cells on either end of the motile chain may be tapered. (wikipedia.org)
  • organelles
  • Atoms are organized into molecules, molecules into organelles, and organelles into cells, and so on. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • Within the group there is some variation in which organelles are presented, but trichocysts, nematocysts, taeniocysts, mucocysts and plastids have been observed from different members within the taxon. (wikipedia.org)
  • secrete
  • The coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, these plants are sometimes termed 'metaphytes' and classified as the group Metaphyta (but Haeckel's definition of Metaphyta places some algae in this group). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Specialized proteins found in the fertilized egg are segregated to different types of differentiated cells. (nesinc.com)
  • Changes in gene expression result in the synthesis of specific proteins found in specialized cells. (nesinc.com)
  • zygote
  • The large size of many eggs is related to the process of development that occurs after the egg is fertilized, when the contents of the egg (now termed a zygote ) are used in a rapid series of cellular divisions, each requiring tremendous amounts of energy that is available in the zygote cells. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • form
  • Cells on the surface of the blastula move inward and form specialized sheets of cells that make up the three embryonic germ layers. (nesinc.com)
  • Plant
  • When dissected, the arrangement of the cells in a root is root hair , epidermis , epiblem , cortex , endodermis , pericycle and, lastly, the vascular tissue in the centre of a root to transport the water absorbed by the root to other places of the plant. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Single-cell Measurements of the Contributions of Cytosolic Na(+) and K(+) to Salt Tolerance Plant Physiology. (jove.com)
  • The shapes of cells are quite varied with some, such as neurons , being longer than they are wide and others, such as parenchyma (a common type of plant cell) and erythrocytes (red blood cells) being equidimensional. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • Plant cells, shown in Figures 3 and 4, have a variety of chemicals incorporated in their cell walls. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • In the vegetative organs of the plant, they act in combination with the cell wall to generate turgor, the driving force for hydraulic stiffness and growth. (plantcell.org)
  • Meristematic cells give rise to various organs of the plant and keep the plant growing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corpus and tunica play a critical part of the plant physical appearance as all plant cells are formed from the meristems. (wikipedia.org)
  • from Ancient Greek: ῥόδον rhodon, "rose" and φυτόν phyton, "plant"), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerably
  • The reproductive organs consist of antheridia and oogonia, though the structures of these organs differ considerably from the corresponding organs in other algae. (wikipedia.org)