• replication
  • Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication errors, controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication at oriC , and regulation of transcription initiation at promoters containing GATC sequences. (asmscience.org)
  • Vibrio cholera and Caulobactercrescentus ) adenine methylation is essential, and in C.crescentus it is important for temporal gene expression which, in turn, is required for coordination of chromosome initiation, replication, and division. (asmscience.org)
  • Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the origin and loading all the replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • While the molecular biology of the plasmid-encoded replication, maintenance, and transfer processes of some plasmids has been studied for decades, little attention has been paid to their dissemination in the environment, their ecology, and the factors that drive their spread and diversification. (asmscience.org)
  • The R6Kγ replication origin allows the plasmid to replicate in pir + E. coli strains, and the kanamycin resistance marker allows for plasmid selection. (jove.com)
  • Third, the R6Kγ replication origin makes it easy to identify the mutated gene which is partially recovered in a recombinant plasmid. (jove.com)
  • Each plasmid has its independent replication system which controls the number of copies of the plasmid in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • To control vertical transmission of plasmids, in addition to controlled-replication systems, bacterial plasmids use different maintenance strategies, such as multimer resolution systems, post-segregational killing systems (addiction modules), and partition systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • However, with more and more complete bacterial genome sequences at hand, the AT and GC composition are meanwhile known to be skewed between leading and lagging strand [ 15 , 16 ] and the extrapolation of the first-order parity rule to higher orders of oligonucleotide composition has yet not been investigated in sufficient depth to draw any valid conclusions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Genes encoding the type III secretion machinery, its substrates, and several regulatory proteins all reside on a 70-Kb virulence plasmid. (jove.com)
  • The majority of motor proteins participating in plasmid segrosomes are Walker-type or ParM type ATPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter two constituents are likely to be mainly messenger RNA and the transcription factor proteins found regulating the bacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins can form clusters (like H-NS does) in order to locally compact specific genomic regions, or be scattered throughout the chromosome (HU, Fis) and they seem to be involved also in coordinating transcription events, spatially sequestering specific genes and participating in their regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secreted effector proteins are secreted directly from the bacterial cell into the eukaryotic (host) cell, where they exert a number of effects that help the pathogen to survive and to escape an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial proteins that need to be secreted pass from the bacterial cytoplasm through the needle directly into the host cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partition systems involve three elements, organized in an auto-regulated operon: A centromere-like DNA site Centromere binding proteins (CBP) The motor protein The centromere-like DNA site is required in cis for plasmid stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • The major challenge in combining immunofluorescence and 3D DNA FISH is, on the one hand to preserve the epitope detected by the antibody as well as the 3D architecture of the nucleus, and on the other hand, to allow the penetration of the DNA probe to detect gene loci or chromosome territories 1-5 . (jove.com)
  • strains
  • Plasmids responsible for "fertility" (or "chromosome mobilizing ability" [Cma]) (24) were also identified genetically in some other strains, including Streptomyces rimosus (18), Streptomyces lividans (29), Streptomyces erythreus (now called Saccharopolyspora erythrea ) (15), Streptomyces venezuelae (17), and Streptomyces ambofaciens (66). (springer.com)
  • In an overwhelming number of studies, the investigated plasmid-carrying strains originate from clinical specimens or diseased plant material, mostly human or plant pathogens. (asmscience.org)
  • YSU or of a wider variety of bacterial strains. (jove.com)
  • By using Hfr and F− strains with one strain carrying mutations in several genes, each affecting a metabolic function or causing antibiotic resistance, and examining the phenotype of the recipient cells on selective agar plates, one can deduce which genes are transferred into the recipient cells first and therefore are closer to the oriT sequence on the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can be transferred as a single unit to new bacterial cells, thus conferring virulence to formerly benign strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • In addition, gene sequence modifications, plasmid copy number, chaperonin co-expression, post-translational enzymatic modification, and process temperature were also required to allow final erythromycin A formation. (jove.com)
  • It is commonly used in bacterial sequence annotation pipelines to generate visual output suitable for the web. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Transposable elements and plasmid or phage introduced genomic islands also provide organisms with the genetic tools they need to adapt to newer environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in all cellular organisms, length of the DNA molecules of bacterial and archaeal chromosomes is very large compared to the dimensions of the cell, and the genomic DNA molecules must be compacted to fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • Plasmids were first clearly implicated in this conjugative process in the most studied strain, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), when certain derivatives of the wild-type isolate were found to differ in their "fertility" properties-that is, in the frequency with which they generated chromosomal recombinants when mated with various other derivatives-and this ability was inherited "infectiously" (2, 28, 72). (springer.com)
  • Microbiol
  • Bibb, M. J., and Hopwood, D. A., 1981, Genetic studies of the fertility plasmid SCP2 and its SCP2' variants in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), J. Gen. Microbiol . (springer.com)
  • Cells
  • 41 ]). (A) Rectangles indicate different cells carrying plasmids or not. (asmscience.org)
  • Collectively, these components function to ensure accurate partitioning of plasmids or whole chromosomes between bacterial daughter cells prior to cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer between two cells through the intervening medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher the copy number is, the more likely the two daughter cells will contain the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid copies are paired around a centromere-like site and then separated in the two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of chromosomes as both parents, though self-fertilization can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, except gamete cells, which only contain 23 chromosomes, so the child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined into 23 pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their study revealed the chromosome rearrangements and CNV of MCF7 human cancer cells at a 150kb resolution, which is much more accurate compared to both CGH and spectral karyotyping at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • These latter characteristics are often selected as the inherited traits to be analyzed in studies of bacterial genetics. (nih.gov)
  • coli
  • The use of PCR isolation, operon construction, multi-cystronic plasmids, and electro-transformation will be described in transferring the erythromycin A genetic cluster to E. coli . (jove.com)
  • detect
  • The reason for the lack of studies of the ecology of plasmids in natural settings was mainly the lack of tools to detect and quantify plasmids and to successfully culture their hosts. (asmscience.org)
  • insertion
  • The excision can either restore the pre-insertion genotype or result in an exchange between the chromosome and the plasmid-encoded copy of the modified gene. (jove.com)
  • copy
  • However, high-copy number plasmids have a cost for the hosting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This metabolic burden is lower for low-copy plasmids, but those have a higher probability of plasmid loss after a few generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences, including orientation and length variations between constructed chromosomes and the reference genome, will suggest copy number and structural aberration. (wikipedia.org)