• virulence
  • The type-1 fimbriae is a key virulence factor that facilitates bacterial attachment to the bladder epithelium and enables thereby UPEC to resist being rinsed out by the urine flow. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the case of wilt-fungi like Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, the increased virulence is dependent on homologous genes picked up from some incidence of horizontal gene transfer with a bacterium early in its evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent work showed that release of LPS from gram negative microbes does not necessarily require the destruction of the bacterial cell wall, but rather, LPS is secreted as part of the normal physiological activity of membrane vesicle trafficking in the form of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which may also contain other virulence factors and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the conserved region, the virulence plasmids contain a highly variable region that has undergone substantial genetic rearrangements, including inversion and deletions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable region of the virulence plasmid contain genes that are highly expressed following phagocytosis of R. equi by macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This variable region is believed to be a pathogenicity island that contains genes essential for virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most notable of these are the virulence-associated protein (vap) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • 9. The method of claim 8 wherein immediately prior to lysing the temperature of the bacterial host organism is raised to a point at which the temperature sensitive repressor protein is inactivated. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The two-fold cost of sex includes this cost and the fact that any organism can only pass on 50% of its own genes to its offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its most precise usage, the term transgene describes a segment of DNA containing a gene sequence that has been isolated from one organism and is introduced into a different organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they are completely different in their purposes, as gene therapy aims to cure a defect in cells, and transgenesis seeks to produce a genetically modified organism by incorporating the specific transgene into every cell and changing the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Nevertheless, recent advances in genomics have taught us that bacterial genomes display a mosaic structure ( 6 ), where their originality lies in the particular combination of DNA blocks rather than in specific DNA sequences themselves. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recently, we have constructed a hybrid shuttle vector that combines sequences of a cyanobacterial cryptic plasmid and of a synthetic biology vector. (openwetware.org)
  • These are typically combined in a bacterial plasmid and the coding sequences are typically chosen from transgenes with previously known functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACs have been useful in this field as complex genes may have several regulatory sequences upstream of the encoding sequence, including various promoter sequences that will govern a gene's expression level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Producing large amounts of protein from gene sequences (or at least the protein coding regions of genes, the open reading frame) found in nature can sometimes prove difficult and is a problem of sufficient impact that scientific conferences have been devoted to the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Using this gene to highlight beak diversity, along with whole genome sequencing of 120 individuals from the different islands, the researchers concluded that individual finches of different species had more similar beak shapes and sizes with birds inhabiting the same islands, and thus feeding from the same sources of food, than with birds of the same species that lived on different islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of bacterial species that have been found to possess multiple replicons include: Rhodobacter sphaeroides (2), Vibrio cholerae, and Burkholderia multivorans (3). (wikipedia.org)
  • A hallmark of the pathogenicity island (PAI) is that many genes within it do not have homologues in other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several natural mechanisms allow gene flow across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Genes mix and match in processes like horizontal gene transfer and gene or genome duplications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • Early in the genome sequencing era, gene synthesis was used as an (expensive) source of cDNAs that were predicted by genomic or partial cDNA information but were difficult to clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Both laboratories then isolated and analyzed the newly created recombinant plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries signaled the birth of genetic engineering, and earned Cohen a number of significant awards, beginning with the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1980 for "his imaginative and persevering studies of bacterial plasmids, for discovering new opportunities for manipulating and investigating the genetics of cells, and for establishing the biological promise of recombinant DNA methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene synthesis has become an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology including heterologous gene expression, vaccine development, gene therapy and molecular engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • When bacterial cells are lysed by the immune system, fragments of membrane containing lipid A are released into the circulation, causing fever, diarrhea, and possible fatal endotoxic shock (also called septic shock). (wikipedia.org)
  • This creates fragments that are similar in size, each containing one or more genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • This collaboration, in particular the 1973 publication of "Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro" by Cohen, Chang, Boyer and Helling, is considered a landmark in the development of methods to combine and transplant genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Despite the progress made in our understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in horizontal gene transfer ( 12 ) and our awareness of their implications in bacterial evolution ( 1 , 5 ), the dynamics of the genetic phenomenon involved still need to be evaluated in environmental contexts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genetic mechanisms of this adaptation include horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication, and gene shuffling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, Cohen is a professor of genetics and medicine at Stanford, where he works on a variety of scientific problems involving cell growth and development, including mechanisms of plasmid inheritance and evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • He also discovered that a particular plasmid associated with the antibiotic-resistant salmonella from the manure, which weighed around 95 kb, was now turning up in different salmonella serotypes from the soil samples (kb stands for kilo-base pair - a measurement used to identify plasmids). (phys.org)
  • A selectable marker is a feature that allows for the scientist to select only for the bacterial cells that contain the gene that allows the bacterium to be resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • vector
  • 4. The improved expression vector of claim 1 wherein said vector further comprises a mutant cI repressor gene derived from λ bacteriophage which mutant gene codes for a temperature sensitive repressor protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. A bacterial host transformed with the expression vector according to any of the claims 1 or 2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1972
  • At a conference on plasmids in 1972, he met Herbert W. Boyer and discovered that their interests and research were complementary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACs
  • A similar method can be used to titer genomic libraries made with non-viral vectors, such as plasmids and BACs. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • This approach lies in the differential measurement of the host and plasmid DNAs used to inoculate the microcosms, using a particular design of quantitative PCR primers/probes where we took advantage of the mosaic aspect of the bacterial genomes to achieve a highly specific quantitative PCR detection system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The importance of this success contributed to the ever-increasing demand for sequencing genomes to research gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Teams are now able to catalog polymorphisms in genomes and investigate those candidate genes contributing to maladies such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • The dosing schedule will consist of eight injections 3 mg/ml of formulated plasmid over a seven week period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The dosing schedule will consist of eight injections over a seven week period of formulated plasmid at the MTD established in the phase I portion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • newly
  • citation needed] Because of the large numbers of nucleotide changes made to the original DNA sequence, the only practical way to create the newly designed genes is to use gene synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum moot the "one gene-one enzyme hypothesis" based on induced mutations in bread mold Neurospora crassa (1941). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Stanford researchers isolated the plasmids, and sent them to the San Francisco team, who cut them using the restriction enzyme EcoRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Gregor Mendel's experiments with the garden pea led him to surmise many of the fundamental laws of genetics (dominant vs recessive genes, the 1-2-1 ratio, see Mendelian inheritance) (1856-1863). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Incorporation of DNA from plasmids between two bacterial cells usually involves the creation of a pilus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the last years, rational approaches to improve the efficacy of DNA vaccines were developed and include: modifications of plasmid basic design, use of next-generation delivery methods, addition of adjuvants in the formulation, improvement in immunization protocols and even targeting to dendritic cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • DNA vaccines are based on the delivery of genes encoding a specific protein antigen that is transcribed and translated by host cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In this study the investigators will be Inserting the gene for interleukin-12 into a person's cancer cells with the anticipation to make the body build an immune response to kill more tumor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Transgenesis is the same as gene therapy in the sense that they both transform cells for a specific purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • parA and parB for partitioning F plasmid DNA to daughter cells during division and ensures stable maintenance of the BAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The demonstration that a protein-coding gene is able to elicit a specific immune response in vivo was first published by Tang and Johnston [ 2 ] who showed that the direct delivery of the human growth hormone gene into the skin of mice could elicit antigen-specific antibody responses. (omicsonline.org)
  • infections
  • Carbapenems are one of our last resorts for treating bacterial infections, what we use when nothing else works," said senior author Gautam Dantas, PhD, associate professor of pathology and immunology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Lipooligosaccharides play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain bacterial infections because they are capable of acting as immunostimulators and immunomodulators. (wikipedia.org)