• nucleotide
  • In addition, immunolocalization with specific antibodies and, more recently, cDNA cloning and in situ hybridization have been done to determine the nucleotide sequences of the encoding genes as well as the amino acid composition of proteins of interest and their pattern of expression. (scielo.cl)
  • Similarly, some myristoylated proteins are activated not by a designated ligand, but by the exchange of GDP for GTP by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein products of the NBS-LRR R genes contain a nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a leucine rich repeat (LRR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The order encompasses a wide range of viruses, many of which containing genes of similar nucleotide sequence and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • Among its related pathways are HIV Life Cycle and Uptake and actions of bacterial toxins . (genecards.org)
  • Active mTORC2 causes translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and stimulates glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast the initial uptake is via the Alr1p and Alr2p proteins, but at this stage the only internal Mg2+ distributing protein identified is Mrs2p. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the last major development before the cloning of the genes encoding the transporters, it was discovered that there was a second Mg2+ uptake system that showed similar affinity and transport kinetics to the first system, but had a different range of sensitivities to interfering cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Smf1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae appears to catalyze high-affinity (KM = 0.3 μm) Mn2+ uptake while the closely related Smf2 protein may catalyze low affinity (KM = 60 μm) Mn2+ uptake in the same organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both proteins also mediate H+-dependent Fe2+ uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • GmMMP2 mRNA in soybean is induced by certain types of stress, including wounding, dehydration and infection with the oomycete pathogen Phytophtora sojae or the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In bacteria and archaea, more than one ribosome may move along a single mRNA chain at one time, each "reading" its sequence and producing a corresponding protein molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomes consist of two subunits that fit together (Figure 2) and work as one to translate the mRNA into a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of mRNA coding for the adhesion protein integrin α4 was not altered in tumor specimens in comparison to controls when analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. (springer.com)
  • Real-time PCR analysis for mRNA levels of SuperSAGE-tagged genes in normal infection process at 96 h postinoculation. (springer.com)
  • The following components are manufactured by the virus through the host's existing organelles: Viral protein synthesis: virus mRNA is translated on cell ribosomes into two types of virus protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen effectors
  • However, the lack of evidence of direct interaction for numerous other R-protein/cognate effector pairs led to formulation of the guard hypothesis, which states that R-proteins can indirectly recognize pathogen effectors by sensing perturbations they induce. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, this term can encompass some conserved microbial signatures (also called pathogen or microbe associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs)) and pathogen effectors (e.g. bacterial type III effectors and oomycete effectors) as well as any genes that control variation in the activity of those molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • These effects led to enhanced iNKT cell cytokine production upon antigen recognition and lower bacterial loads during Sphingomonas paucimobilis infection. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We cloned 17 full-length cDNAs from different SuperSAGE tags and confirmed that these genes were upregulated during normal infection in the incompatible interaction. (springer.com)
  • Bol JF, Linthorst HJM, Cornelissen BJC (1990) Plant pathogenesis-related proteins induced by virus infection. (springer.com)
  • In order for the T-even phage to infect its host and begin its life cycle it must enter the first process of infection, adsorption of the phage to the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soybean nodulin-26, a major component of the peribacteroid membrane induced during nodulation in legume roots after Rhizobium infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to bacterial infection or inflammation, the encoded protein is thought to inactivate alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, a major tissue protectant against proteolytic enzymes released by activated neutrophils, facilitating the transendothelial migration of neutrophils to inflammatory sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • The mitochondrial ribosomes of eukaryotic cells, are produced from mitochondrial genes, and functionally resemble many features of those in bacteria, reflecting the likely evolutionary origin of mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to prevent the DNA from becoming an unmanageable tangle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterial system might also be able to provide some utility for the analysis of eukaryotic Mg2+ transport proteins, but differences in biological systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes will have to be considered in any experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • BvgS is a plasma membrane-bound sensor kinase which responds to stimulation by phosphorylating a cytoplasmic helix-turn-helix-containing protein, BvgA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perception of the calcium oscillations is a function of a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and this activates nodulation gene expression via two GRAS domain transcriptional regulators, Nodulation Signaling Pathway1 (NSP1) and NSP2, and an ERF transcription factor required for nodulation. (plantcell.org)
  • In 1982, Koiti Titani's lab identified an "N-terminal blocking group" on the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from cow as n-Tetradecanoyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein products of the PRRs contain extracellular, juxtamembrane, transmembrane and intracellular non-RD kinase domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Interferon-inducible iron-sulfur (4FE-4S) cluster-binding antiviral protein which plays a major role in the cell antiviral state induced by type I and type II interferon. (genecards.org)
  • Here, we report that mice with dendritic cell (DC)-specific deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 showed better CD1D1-restricted glycolipid presentation in vivo. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Unlike most other Bordetella toxins, tracheal cytotoxin is expressed constitutively, being a normal product of the breakdown of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plasma membrane enriched fraction of the CTCL cell line HuT78 was used for immunization of two rabbits. (springer.com)
  • Further analysis will unravel whether the list of identified proteins harbors candidates, which might be accessible for antibodies from outside the cell. (springer.com)
  • We are very grateful to Dr. Eva Frei (German Cancer Research Center, E080) for her help and support in the enrichment of membrane fractions, to Elke Dickes and Anita Heinzelmann for their excellent technical assistance, to Dr. K. Kaltoft (Aarhus University Hospital, University of Aarhus, Denmark) for providing us the cell lines SeAx and MyLa, and to Dr. A. Bensussan (Medical Faculty, Creteil, France) for the cell line Cou-L3. (springer.com)
  • Our analysis of gene expression profiles in 195 GBM indicated strong correlations between Sec61g and several cell cycle regulation genes, suggesting that Sec61g may increase cell growth via these genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The epididymis, a single convoluted duct, has been grossly divided into three major regions: caput, corpus, and cauda: they have been primarily distinguished by their epithelial cell morphology, their sperm fertilizing ability, and more recently, by their specific pattern of gene expression. (scielo.cl)
  • Some of the proteins produced by the epididymis, called sperm decapacitating factors, may associate to the cell surface and prevent premature sperm activation. (scielo.cl)
  • The tail fibers help in attaching the phage to a bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • teichoic acid, cell wall proteins and lipopolysaccharides, flagella, and pili all can serve as receptors for the phage to bind to. (wikipedia.org)
  • The host cell must provide the energy and synthetic machinery and the low molecular-weight precursors for the synthesis of viral proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus attaches to the cell membrane of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane of the host cell invaginates the virus particle, enclosing it in a pinocytotic vacoule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell enzymes (from lysosomes) strip off the virus protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses, now being mature are released by either sudden rupture of the cell, or gradual extrusion(budding) of enveloped viruses through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) of the human lens of the eye (Aqp0), after which the MIP family was named, represents about 60% of the protein in the lens cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along the body surface, the flagellum is attached to the cell membrane forming an undulating membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • As transmembrane proteins, integrins connect the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the plasma membrane of the animal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • NDR1 is also believed to be involved in cell wall adhesion to the plasma membrane and fluid retention of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon encountering a host bacterium, the tail section of the virion binds to receptors on the cell surface and delivers the DNA into the cell by use of an injectisome-like mechanism (an injectisome is a nanomachine that evolved for the delivery of proteins by type III secretion). (wikipedia.org)
  • The tail section of the virus punches a hole through the bacterial cell wall and plasma membrane and the genome passes down the tail into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intimin is expressed on the bacterial cell surface where it can bind to its receptor Tir (Translocated intimin receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Expression of native Cdr1 and Mdr1 protein in C. albicans cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunodetection and resulted in increased resistance to the putative substrates as compared to control. (frontiersin.org)
  • Resistance to AvrB and AvrRpm1 in soybean is mediated by the R-proteins RPG1-b and RPG1-r, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used SuperSAGE, an improved version of serial analysis of gene expression, to explore transcriptome changes early in the L 3 -mediated resistance response of pepper plants against a tobamovirus. (springer.com)
  • Capsicum chinense plants homozygous for the L 3 resistance gene were infected with virulent and avirulent strains of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). (springer.com)
  • Plants were maintained at a temperature nonpermissive for the resistance gene to allow the viruses to spread, then transferred to a permissive temperature for 3 h and subsequently analyzed. (springer.com)
  • Berzal-Herranz A, de la Cruz A, Tenllado F, Díaz-Ruiz JR, López L, Sanz AI, Vaquero C, Serra MT, García-Luque I (1995) The Capsicum L 3 gene-mediated resistance against the tobamoviruses is elicited by the coat protein. (springer.com)
  • Flor showed that the inheritance of both resistance in the host and parasite ability to cause disease is controlled by pairs of matching genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes the N resistance gene of tobacco against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (wikipedia.org)
  • examples include rice Xa21D for resistance against Xanthomonas and the cf genes of tomato that confer resistance against Cladosporium fulvum. (wikipedia.org)
  • LRRs are involved in protein-protein interactions, and the greatest variation amongst resistance genes occurs in the LRR domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • LRR swapping experiments between resistance genes in flax rust resulted in the specificity of the resistance gene for the avirulence gene changing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most resistance genes are autosomal dominant but there are some, most notably the mlo gene in barley, in which monogenic resistance is conferred by recessive alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Proteins (NRAMPs) are members of the Metal Ion (Mn2+-iron) Transporter (NRAMP) Family (TC# 2.A.55). (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Together, our data confirms the utility of new endogenous overexpression system which is devoid of artifactual factors as most suited for functional characterization of multidrug transporter proteins of C. albicans . (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we describe the cloning of a tobacco MMP gene from tobacco BY-2 suspension cells and functional analysis of the encoded product, NtMMP1 using zymographic assays on artificial substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once the protein is produced, it can then fold to produce a specific functional three-dimensional structure although during synthesis some proteins start folding into their correct form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epididymal sperm-coating proteins may exert their effects on the male gamete already in the epididymis or become functional in the female tract. (scielo.cl)
  • If the proteins could be shown to be functional in bacteria (S. typhimurium), then a combination of the techniques of mag-fura 2, quantification of protein in the envelope membrane, and structure of the proteins (X-ray crystal or cryo-TEM) might allow the determination of the basic mechanisms involved in the recognition and transport of the Mg2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This is translation of the genome into protein produces. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this stage, newly synthesized genome(nucleic acid), and proteins are assembled to form new virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • each virion has an icosohedral head that contains the viral genome, and is attached to a flexible tail by a connector protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral capsid proteins come together to form a precursor prohead, into which the genome enters. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • BvgR binds to a consensus sequence present within the coding sequences of at least some Bvg-repressed genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myristoyl CoA binds at the N-terminal portion while the C-terminal end binds the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • These unique features and other features gave significance of the T-even phages, this includes transduction which is responsible for transfer of drug resistant features, lysogenic conversion is responsible for acquisition of new characteristics such as the formation of new enzymes, random insertion into bacterial chromosome can induce insertional mutation, epidemiological typing of bacteria (phage typing), phages are used extensively in genetic engineering where they serve as cloning vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATPase function of MgtA is highly cardiolipin dependent and has been shown to detect free magnesium in the μM range In bacteria, Mg2+ is probably mainly supplied by the CorA protein and, where the CorA protein is absent, by the MgtE protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins apparently based on MgtE are present in bacteria and metazoa, but are missing in fungi and plants, whilst proteins apparently related to CorA are present in all of these groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1968, Lusk described the limitation of bacterial (Escherichia coli) growth on Mg2+-poor media, suggesting that bacteria required Mg2+ and were likely to actively take this ion from the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, through sequence homology searches of whole genomes, several other bacterial species were identified that also contain sequences from the same gene family as opd, including pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli (yhfV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • superfamily
  • Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. (jove.com)
  • molecules
  • Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins (r-protein or rProtein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomes assemble polymeric protein molecules whose sequence is controlled by the sequence of messenger RNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, loss of Atg5 in DCs impaired clathrin-dependent internalization of CD1D1 molecules via the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) and, thus, increased surface expression of stimulatory CD1D1-glycolipid complexes. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • A good body of research has found ILR proteins that model the glycoproteins vitronectin and fibronectin, two important molecules in membrane stability and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • Other than these two characteristic features, the sequence of the family of NOI-containing proteins is diverse and, with the exception of RIN4, their functions are not known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to their characteristic structure and possession of potentially homologous genes, it is believed these bacteriophages possess a common origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opd gene is flanked by transposition insertion sequences, characteristic of Tn3 family of transposons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the characteristic architectural organization of the opd gene region suggests that different species acquired the gene through horizontal transfer through transposition and plasmid transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • They differ in their size, sequence, structure, and the ratio of protein to RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Binding of this protein to the consensus sequence represents gene expression by reducing transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the RGD sequence in many proteins suggest the same adhesive ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene sequence encoding the enzyme (opd) in Flavobacterium sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, a transposase-like sequence (homologous to TnpA) and a resolvase-like sequence (homologous to TnpR) were also identified in regions upstream of the opd gene, which are characteristics of class II transposons such as Tn3. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • It is largely made up of specialized RNA known as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as well as dozens of distinct proteins (the exact number varies slightly between species). (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been several reports characterizing epididymal proteins in different species. (scielo.cl)
  • AvrPto is an ancient effector that is conserved in many P. syringae strains, whereas Pto R gene is only found in a few wild tomato species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first organophosphate-degrading bacterial species was isolated from a soil sample from the Philippines in 1973, which identified as Flavobacterium sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • A closer look on the organization of the opd gene from Flavobacterium suggests a potential transposon-like architecture, which accounts for the widespread distribution of the gene among other microbial species that might have occurred through lateral DNA transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • However, identification of homologous gene products in other mammals, particularly humans, has been difficult, in part by poor evolutionary conservation. (scielo.cl)
  • nodulation
  • Our work reveals direct binding of a GRAS protein complex to DNA and highlights the importance of the NSP1-NSP2 complex for efficient nodulation in the model legume Medicago truncatula . (plantcell.org)
  • molecular
  • The protein appears to be expressed in two forms with different molecular masses, both of which are enzymatically active as determined by casein zymography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ribosome (/ˈraɪbəˌsoʊm, -boʊ-/) is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ribosome ( / ˈ r aɪ b ə ˌ s oʊ m , - b oʊ -/ ) is a complex molecular machine , found within all living cells , that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the last ten years, the field of research on epididymal proteins and their function has advanced to the molecular level. (scielo.cl)
  • transporters
  • Heterologous overexpression of MDR pump proteins of C. albicans in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used as a novel tool for the structure-function analyses of these transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • transporter
  • 1.A.8 - The Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) Family 1.A.16 - The Formate-Nitrite Transporter (FNT) Family The MIP family is large and diverse, possessing thousands of members that form transmembrane channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is important that the amount of transporter present in the membrane is accurately determined if comparisons of transport capability are to be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosome
  • A ribosome is made from complexes of RNAs and proteins and is therefore a ribonucleoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albert, Microsomal Particles and Protein Synthesis Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, and George Emil Palade were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, in 1974, for the discovery of the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ribosomal proteins and rRNAs are arranged into two distinct ribosomal pieces of different size, known generally as the large and small subunit of the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Containing about 160 genes, these virulent viruses are among the largest, most complex viruses that are known and one of the best studied model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to all viruses, they depend on many of their hosts important makeups and roles or functions (transcription and translation, membranes, breakdown of energy etc.), for their reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of bacterial viruses, the release of progeny virions takes place by lysis of the infected bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are classed into 7 types of genes, each of which has its own families of viruses, which in turn have differing replication strategies themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Chaudhary N, McMahon C, Blobel G (1991) Primary structure of a human arginine-rich nuclear protein that colocalizes with spliceosome components. (springer.com)
  • It is a protein broadly expressed in the plasma a nuclear membranes of immune, epithelial and muscle cells and a potential therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory, metabolic and immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn's disease and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Protein-protein interaction database search suggested that Sec61g interacts with 107 known and hypothetical proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other epididymal proteins may act directly in the process of gamete recognition and interaction, by remaining on spermatozoa to mediate sperm binding to the zona pellucida and oocyte plasma membrane. (scielo.cl)
  • In doing so, he discovered the differential interaction that is common to all gene-for-gene relationships and that is now known as the Person differential interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • LANCL2 expression in immune cells, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and pancreas, and the potential to manipulate LANCL2 signaling and GLUT4 translocation with ABA make this G protein-coupled receptor a novel therapeutic target for glycemic control. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Ligand binding to a myristoylated protein with its myristoyl group sequestered can result in a conformational change in the protein resulting in the exposure of the myristoyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • After detecting microbial components, PRRs drive the coordinated activation of transcription factors, leading to the expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, type I interferons (IFNs), and antimicrobial genes. (rupress.org)
  • a process that, in general, results in no gene expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to identify CTCL surface proteins with a tumor specific expression profile. (springer.com)
  • Other unique features of the T-even virus is its regulated gene expression. (wikipedia.org)