• insects
  • BROWN K.S., TRIGO J.R., FRANCINI R.B., MORAIS A.B.B. & MOTTA P.C. 1991: Aposematic insects on toxic host plants: coevolution, colonization, and chemical emancipation. (eje.cz)
  • Georg Petschenka , Institute for Insect Biotechnology, University of Giessen: "Do predators spur the coevolutionary arms race between insects and plants? (mpg.de)
  • In (B) and (C), warmer temperatures lead to dissociation of the multi-trophic interaction by differentially affecting the seasonal growth and activity patterns of the plants and insects. (intechopen.com)
  • However, the insects respond less to warming and their temporal life cycles become desynchronized with the growth cycles of their plants. (intechopen.com)
  • In (C), the plants only marginally shift their growing patterns to an earlier time point in the season, whereas the insects have an additional (=4th) generation later in the year. (intechopen.com)
  • In both climate warming scenarios, there are gaps for the insects when food plants are scarce or absent. (intechopen.com)
  • Both strategies are especially effective towards insectivorous insects such as ants, while only Nematinae species are frequently brightly colored and truly gregarious. (biomedcentral.com)
  • populations
  • Recent survey efforts have not located any new populations of this species in Canada. (gc.ca)
  • Though widespread, populations in Finland are at risk because they are not able to travel great distances as easily as other species, such as monarchs, if their environment should suddenly become unsuitable. (wikipedia.org)
  • In populations of aposematic species, it is common to have a single coloration phenotype dominate, because predators better learn to avoid the more common phenotype and rare phenotypes suffer higher predation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though this extreme gene flow would be thought to lead to fixation of a single morphological phenotype, the differential selective pressures experienced by various populations of the species likely leads to the maintenance of its widespread polymorphism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In (A), Pieris brassicae (middle) the large cabbage white butterfly is trivoltine, and different generations lay their eggs on different species of large, short-lived annual brassicaceous (mustard) plants (bottom) that grow in aggregated populations. (intechopen.com)
  • Consequently, species and populations are being challenged by multiple stressors, making it more difficult for them to adapt to rapid shifts in climate regimes. (intechopen.com)
  • In a warming world, many species and populations are responding by changing various aspects of their life cycles, such as seasonal growth and phenology patterns, as well as by shifting their ranges pole-wards and/or to higher elevations [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12778549 Models accounting for genetic variation for resistance to herbivores within plant populations often postulate a balance between the costs of that resistance and its benefits. (jove.com)
  • We monitored growth, survival, and seed production of plants from defined crosses of local populations for three years in a common garden when exposed to and protected from herbivores, and with and without supplemental water. (jove.com)
  • insect herbivores
  • The production of glandular trichomes by Datura wrightii was shown to be costly in a previous one-year study because plants producing glandular trichomes (sticky plants), a factor conferring resistance to some insect herbivores, also produced 45% fewer seeds than plants producing nonglandular trichomes (velvety plants) when grown in a common garden. (jove.com)
  • butterflies
  • In this 11th article of Butterflies' Nectaring Plants series, we feature a medium-sized tree that can grow up to at least 7-9m tall, the Buas-Buas / Malbau ( Prema serratifolia ). (blogspot.com)
  • The Buas-Buas can also be found in the Healing Garden at the Singapore Botanic Gardens, where there are occasionally many visiting butterflies at the flowers of the plant. (blogspot.com)
  • ants
  • Bioassays with invertebrates (ants) and vertebrates (mice) revealed that the regurgitant is deterrent to would-be predators. (biologists.org)
  • Easy bleeding functions through a combination of attributes, which is corroborated by an independent contrasts test indicating a statistically significant negative correlation between species-level integument mechanical resistance and hemolymph feeding deterrence against ants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • interactions
  • In Price P.W., Lewinsohn T.M., Fernandes G.W. & Benson W.W. (eds): Plant-Animal Interactions. (eje.cz)
  • Phenological interactions involving three plant species, a specialist herbivore and its specialist endoparasitoid under normal conditions and under climate warming scenarios in Europe. (intechopen.com)
  • Variation in responses at the species level makes it virtually impossible to predict the effects of climate change on trophic interactions, although available evidence suggests that there will be many more losers than winners and as a result we can expect ecosystem interactions to be simplified and ecosystems therefore to become less stable and resilient. (intechopen.com)
  • found
  • The species as a whole is found from Alaska south to California and Colorado and east to Ontario and Minnesota. (gc.ca)
  • Moreover, the amount of nectar found within the flower can also influence the duration of a pollinator's visit to the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • Some species, like the bumble bees Bombus appositus or B. occidentalis and many species of nectar-feeding birds can distinguish between robbed and unrobbed plants and minimize their energy cost of foraging by avoiding heavily robbed flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nectar robbing, especially by birds, can damage the reproductive parts of a flower and thus diminish the fitness of a plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • perennial
  • If a greater commitment to vegetative growth eventually allows sticky plants to compensate for reduced seed production, we would expect a reduction or elimination of the cost of resistance over time in this perennial plant. (jove.com)
  • caterpillar
  • In this study we explore the mechanism and function of caterpillar clicks by focusing primarily on one species, Antheraea polyphemus Cramer ( Fig. 1 ), a silkmoth that occurs throughout deciduous forests, orchards and wetlands of North America. (biologists.org)
  • produce
  • Comparative evidence revealed that other Bombycoidea species, including Actias luna (Saturniidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), also produce airborne sounds upon attack, and that these sounds precede regurgitation. (biologists.org)
  • Several species belonging to the silkmoth (Saturniidae) and hawkmoth (Sphingidae) families have been described to produce airborne sounds audible to the human ear (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • Many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the ParĂ¡. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some produce other desirable materials, for example gutta-percha ( Palaquium gutta ) and chicle from Manilkara species. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollinator's
  • Pollination systems are mostly mutualistic, meaning that the plant benefits from the pollinator's transport of male gametes and the pollinator benefits from a reward, such as pollen or nectar. (wikipedia.org)
  • contain
  • Research is in progress on extracts from the bark and wood that contain alkaloids and iridoid glycoside, as these are believed to prevent cardiovascular disease. (blogspot.com)
  • thus
  • Thus, in addition to climate change, natural ecosystems have been altered by other human-induced changes including deforestation, eutrophication, over-harvesting, the introduction of non-native species and various types of pollution. (intechopen.com)
  • Common
  • lettuce ( Lactuca species), the related Scorzonera tau-saghyz , various Taraxacum species, including common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) and Russian dandelion ( Taraxacum kok-saghyz ), and perhaps most importantly for its hypoallergenic properties, guayule ( Parthenium argentatum ). (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Chinese classic herbal formula List of branches of alternative medicine List of culinary herbs and spices List of herbs with known adverse effects Materia Medica Medicinal mushrooms Medicinal plants of the American West Medicinal plants traditionally used by the indigenous peoples of North America Naturopathic medicine Wikispecies ^ Digitalis use in the United States is controlled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and can only be prescribed by a physician. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • With this signal the pollinator can visit the right plant at the right time maximizing both its reproductive advantage as well as that of the flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the proboscis of E. elvina does not come in contact with the reproductive parts of the flower in C. ovandensis, but this does not lead to significant reduction in fruit-set of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollination may take place when the body of the robber contacts the reproductive parts of the plant while it robs, or during pollen collection which some bees practice in concert with nectar robbing. (wikipedia.org)
  • flower
  • When a robber consumes all of a flower's nectar, legitimate pollinators may avoid the flower, resulting in a negative effect on plant fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The ability of species to shift their distributions is often limited by various eco-physiological constraints. (intechopen.com)
  • single
  • One of the major differences between landscapes at the time of previous climate change events and the current one is that the biosphere is now dominated by a single species, Homo sapiens sapiens , which has profoundly altered and simplified many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (intechopen.com)
  • nectar
  • Because many species that act as pollinators also act as nectar robbers, nectar robbing is considered to be a form of exploitation of plant-pollinator mutualism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nectar robbing mammals include a fruit bat and a squirrel which robs nectar from the ginger plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of floral-nectar robbing on plant fitness depends on several issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • In this case, the effect of robbery on a plant is direct. (wikipedia.org)
  • A good example of an indirect effect is the change in the behaviour of a legitimate pollinator, which either increases or decreases the fitness of a plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • negative
  • Trigona ferricauda) on a plant is almost always negative, probably because their aggressive territorial behaviour effectively evicts legitimate pollinators. (wikipedia.org)