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  • pathogens
  • Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be sure, the extensive and intensive crop-cultivation of modern times, together with the extraordinary worldwide transportation and exchange of crop-products, have greatly favored the distribution of plant pathogens (insects, fungi and bacteria), and afford them exceptional opportunities for destructive development. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The popular Disease Notes section contains brief and timely reports of new diseases, new disease outbreaks, new hosts, and pertinent new observations of plant diseases and pathogens worldwide. (apsnet.org)
  • A new commentary on the nature of pathogens is raising startling new questions about the role that fundamental science research on evolution plays in the understanding of emerging disease. (redorbit.com)
  • The authors point out that certain life-history features of fungal plant pathogens make them prone to rapid ecological speciation by host shifts, including strong disruptive selection caused by hosts, a large number of spores produced by pathogens, mating within hosts, a small number of genes underlying the specificity of host-pathogen interactions, and frequent asexual reproduction with rare occurrences of sexual recombination. (redorbit.com)
  • Other fungal pathogens have been responsible for the epidemic leading to the Irish potato famine in the 1840s and, more currently, the stem rust disease of wheat, first identified in Uganda in 1998 and now threatening North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. (redorbit.com)
  • The conclusions could be applied to other pathogens, including nematodes, bacteria and viruses because they share many traits with fungal plant pathogens that could cause ecological speciation by host shifts. (redorbit.com)
  • If we are to fully understand emerging diseases, we recommend thinking differently about life-history traits to tailor models based on specificities of pathogens," the authors write. (redorbit.com)
  • Symptoms are the visible changes that occur in the host plant in response to infection by pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book provides a theoretical framework based on experiments in many different host pathogen systems and moved the study of plant disease epidemiology forward rapidly, especially for fungal foliar pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant disease triangle illustration Monocyclic epidemics are caused by pathogens with a low birth rate and death rate, meaning they only have one infection cycle per season. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • The world's first mass-cultivated banana cultivar Gros Michel was lost in the 1920s to Panama disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (wikipedia.org)
  • White mold is a soil fungus, so there is no cure except to destroy the plant and plant peonies elsewhere. (gardenguides.com)
  • Verticillium wilt is a fungus that lives in the soil, on infected plant waste or in infected seed potatoes. (gardenguides.com)
  • In some instances, the fungus infecting the plant may produce growth or structures on the plant, stems, or leaves such as masses of mycelium or aggregates of spores with a characteristic appearance. (britannica.com)
  • For example, corn is planted into a field with corn residue that has the fungus Cercospora zea-maydis, the causal agent of Grey leaf spot of corn, but if the weather is too dry and there is no leaf wetness the spores of the fungus in the residue cannot germinate and initiate infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking the example above, the corn is planted into a ploughed field where there is no corn residue with the fungus Cercospora zea-maydis, the causal agent of Grey leaf spot of corn, present but the weather means long periods of leaf wetness, there is no infection initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasitic
  • While disease may usually be said to result in ultimate injury, there are apparently certain marked exceptions, as in the case of the root tubercles of legumes caused by the attacks of certain nitrogen-fixing parasitic bacteria. (chestofbooks.com)
  • fungicide
  • Treatment of leaf blotch includes removal of infected parts, application of appropriate fungicide and watering only at the base of the plant. (gardenguides.com)
  • A fungicide formulated for tomatoes can be used to treat affected plants. (bhg.com)
  • If you already have infected flowers and fruit, avoid treating the plants with fungicide until after harvest. (gardenguides.com)
  • In this month's issue of Plant Disease , Thiessen and colleagues report on timing fungicide applications to manage grape powdery mildew based on detection of Erysiphe necator spores in samplers placed in Oregon vineyards. (apsnet.org)
  • Using this method, growers effectively managed the disease with approximately two fewer applications of fungicide compared with their standard management practice. (apsnet.org)
  • The host might out-grow susceptibility as with high-temperature adult-plant resistance, the environment changes and is not conducive for the pathogen to cause disease, or the pathogen is controlled through a fungicide application for instance. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • The only solution is to remove the plants, destroy them and remove any diseased soil. (gardenguides.com)
  • Plants must be destroyed and the soil removed. (gardenguides.com)
  • Their larvae live in the soil and cause damage by eating the roots of the plant. (gardenguides.com)
  • To help prevent this disease from attacking the potatoes, make sure the soil is at least 60 degrees Fahrenheit before planting. (gardenguides.com)
  • The spores can be carried and disseminated by wind currents, water (splashing and rain), soil (dust), insects, birds, and the remains of plants that once were infected. (britannica.com)
  • If the gardener was to rotavate the surrounding soil, after plant removal, would this help by reducing the size of the remaining rhizomorphs? (rhs.org.uk)
  • The differing experimental growing media would help us understand whether soil enrichment, once the host plant was removed, could help suppress the rhizomorph growth. (rhs.org.uk)
  • strains
  • Although obvious qualitative differences in disease resistance can be observed when multiple specimens are compared (allowing classification as "resistant" or "susceptible" after infection by the same pathogen strain at similar inoculum levels in similar environments), a gradation of quantitative differences in disease resistance is more typically observed between plant strains or genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Across large regions and many crop species, it is estimated that diseases typically reduce plant yields by 10% every year in more developed nations or agricultural systems, but yield loss to diseases often exceeds 20% in less developed settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Hoya or wax plant consists of over 200 species. (gardenguides.com)
  • Common names should not be relied upon since some distinctly different plant species may have the same common name, and the common name used in one area may be used for a completely different species in another area. (apsnet.org)
  • A great variation in susceptibility to a specific disease may occur within different cultivars of a plant species. (apsnet.org)
  • Our current advice suggests removal of the infected plant and if replanting in the area to use a less susceptible species. (rhs.org.uk)
  • New ways of understanding the emergence of novel disease organisms are being developed by applying ideas from fundamental research on the factors influencing the origin of species (speciation)," Craze wrote in his testimony for the evidentiary sessions held in February 2010. (redorbit.com)
  • wilt
  • Without water, the plants begin to suffer from tomato wilt on sunny days, although they appear to recover at night. (bhg.com)
  • The process of tomato wilt continues until the entire plant is affected. (bhg.com)
  • ecological
  • Citation: Tatiana Giraud, Pierre Gladieux, Sergey Gavrilets, Linking the emergence of fungal plant diseases with ecological speciation, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 29 April 2010, ISSN 0169-5347, DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2010.03.006. (redorbit.com)
  • Plant disease epidemiology is often looked at from a multi-disciplinary approach, requiring biological, statistical, agronomic and ecological perspectives. (wikipedia.org)
  • healthy
  • After trimming diseased plants, pruners and other tools should be cleaned with bleach or alcohol before they are used on healthy plants. (gardenguides.com)
  • Growing healthy, pest- and disease-free tomato plants is relatively simple. (bhg.com)
  • In the spring, when the plants are first starting to grow, prune back dead and diseased canes to make more room for the healthy canes. (gardenguides.com)
  • Moreover, spectral signatures from frond 9 were very discriminatory and at 550-560 nm were able to distinguish plants with early infections from healthy plants. (apsnet.org)
  • rusts
  • In the historical writings of the Hebrews, the Bible, and in the writings of the Greeks and Romans, frequent mention is made of such diseases as rusts, smuts and mildews of grain and canker of trees. (chestofbooks.com)
  • attacks
  • While the reaction of plants to insect attacks in the formation of galls, cankers, and so on, is to be regarded as symptom of disease, the injuries produced by the mere eating away of parts of leaf, stem or fruit are not usually so to be regarded. (chestofbooks.com)
  • wheat
  • Wheat blast is an economically important disease in South America and on the "watch list" of North American wheat pathologists. (apsnet.org)
  • infection
  • In addition to PTI and ETI, plant defenses can be activated by the sensing of damage-associated compounds (DAMP), such as portions of the plant cell wall released during pathogenic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • perennial
  • The wax plant can be a houseplant, perennial or shrub. (gardenguides.com)
  • The common name 'vinca' has been used to describe plants belonging to two different genera, Vinca , a perennial, and Catharanthus , an annual. (apsnet.org)
  • organisms
  • it is almost impossible to imagine how a specific application to disease organisms could have been used to drive research in this area. (redorbit.com)
  • growth
  • It can also inhibit normal growth (hypotrophy) or induce excessive abnormal growth (hypertrophy or hyperplasia) in a portion of or throughout an entire plant . (britannica.com)
  • Centers
  • In addition to administering Medicare and Medicaid, which together provide health insurance to one in four Americans, HHS also oversees the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control. (wheelingjesuituniversity.com)
  • As of June 2010[update], there were three reported cases of Enterobacteriaceae isolates bearing this newly described resistance mechanism in the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stated that "All three U.S. isolates were from patients having received recent medical care in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • India
  • Other uses for this plant include arrow poison in Nigeria and snake repellent in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is in great demand for medicinal use, so it is cultivated on farms in India, but most plant material sold into the pharmaceutical trade comes from wild populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is a former Professor and Head of Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition Unit at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi (AIIMS) and a former Director and Senior Consultant of Hepatology and Gastroenterology at Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute for Liver, Renal and Digestive Diseases, New Delhi. (wikipedia.org)
  • He served as the chairman of the Task Force of Liver Diseases initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and is the incumbent chair of the Digestive Diseases Foundation of India and the Digestive Diseases Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has been the president of such societies as International Association of Liver Diseases, Asian Pacific Association for the Study of Liver, Indian Society of Gastroenterology and Nutrition Society of India (1995-99) and the vice-president of the World Gastroenterology Organisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • Vencill suspects that the phenomenon is the result of changes in plant physiology caused by the addition of genes making the beans resistant to glyphosate, the herbicide marketed as Roundup by Monsanto. (biosafety-info.net)
  • Projection of stand growth and ecosystem dynamics is based upon a representation of the rates of key ecological processes regulating the availability of, and competition for, light and nutrient resources (a representation of moisture effects on soil processes, plant physiology and growth, and the consequences of moisture competition is being added). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The rates of these processes are calculated from a combination of historical bioassay data (such as biomass accumulation in plant components and changes in stand density over time) and measures of certain ecosystem variables (including decomposition rates, photosynthetic saturation curves, and plant tissue nutrient concentrations) by relating 'biologically active' biomass components (foliage and small roots) to calculated values of nutrient uptake, the capture of light energy, and net primary production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro experiments with plant tissue culture have been performed, and some increased the yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fungus itself is observed in only the root tissue of the virus-infected plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • What is to keep this fungus (the genera is typically found in diverse habitats) from transferring to other host plants, propagating patented genes throughout the environment? (blogspot.com)
  • What do we take away from the plant in the process of adding one or a few new genes? (blogspot.com)
  • species
  • I n 2010, we published a manuscript illustrating the presence of more than two dozen species of endophytic microbe that reside within micropropagated plants . (blogspot.com)
  • Using this 'internal calibration' or hybrid approach, the model generates a suite of growth properties for each tree and understory plant species that is to be represented in a subsequent simulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gloriosa superba is a species of flowering plant in the family Colchicaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • certain
  • During the 1940s, Continental Baking began adding vitamins and minerals to Wonder Bread as part of a government-sponsored program of enriching white bread, which was notoriously deficient in vitamin and mineral content, to combat certain diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • In 1993, he shifted to Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute for Liver, Renal and Digestive Diseases, New Delhi as its director and senior consultant and served the institution till 2000 when he moved to Metro Group of Hospitals, Noida as its chairman, a post he holds till date. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Snags and logs are created in the model from natural stand self-thinning (mainly due to light competition) and from different types of user-defined disturbance events such as insect/disease-induced mortality, windthrow, non-commercial thinning and stand harvesting. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Scientists at Trinity College Dublin performed a large-scale international study involving the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, which was published in. (labroots.com)
  • test
  • Worse still, stems of virtually all the Monsanto beans split open as the first leaves began to emerge compared with between 50 and 70 per cent of the other test plants. (biosafety-info.net)
  • contains
  • As with other members of the Colchicaceae, this plant contains high levels of colchicine, a toxic alkaloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Intriguingly, he found that plants resistant to a different herbicide, gluphosinate, were not affected by the heat, so he concludes the problem must be peculiar to glyphosate resistance. (biosafety-info.net)
  • image
  • Originally published in Sustainable agroecosystems in climate change mitigation , this image summarizes the nutrient cycling and plant protection features offered by a diverse and properly structured microbiome. (blogspot.com)
  • significant
  • Two of the patients were diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also called Lou Gehrig's disease, and the third had a significant spinal cord injury. (labroots.com)