• rays
  • He made major contributions to particle physics and the study of cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1927 graduate of the University of Bologna, he became interested in cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the war, he was recruited by Jerrold Zacharias at MIT, where Rossi continued his pre-war research into cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • In search of pioneering research, Rossi turned his attention to cosmic rays, which had been discovered by Victor Hess in manned balloon flights in 1911 and 1912. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment to detect primary cosmic gamma rays. (rochester.edu)
  • Integral fluxes of primary cosmic rays at Palestine, Texas, and Fort Churchill, Canada near solar minimum. (rochester.edu)
  • Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett OM CH PRS (18 November 1897 - 13 July 1974) was an English experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism, winning the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1948. (wikipedia.org)
  • EMMA is focused on studying the composition of cosmic rays in the energy above 1 PeV-range, the so-called knee region. (wikipedia.org)
  • He focused on ozone, cosmic rays, and the ionosphere, all measured using balloons and rockets launched from White Sands, New Mexico, or from ships out at sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1951 or 1952 he proposed the MOUSE ("Minimal Orbital Unmanned Satellite, Earth"), a 100 pounds (45 kg) satellite that would contain Geiger counters for measuring cosmic rays, photo cells for scanning the Earth, telemetry electronics for sending data back to Earth, a magnetic data storage device, and rudimentary solar energy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the publication, Bhabha offered an explanation of the absorption features and electron shower production in cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1936, with Walter Heitler, he co-authored a paper, "The Passage of Fast Electrons and the Theory of Cosmic Showers" in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which they used their theory to describe how primary cosmic rays from outer space interact with the upper atmosphere to produce particles observed at the ground level. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, he combined a climbing expedition to the Andes in 1934 with a project to measure geomagnetic effects on cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering his interests in cosmic rays and mountaineering, it was a natural development for Narkiewicz-Jodko to take to the skies as a balloonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were equipped with a Geiger-Mueller tube telescope, intending to measure the variation in intensity of cosmic rays at different altitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also background radiation in the infrared, x-rays, etc., with different causes, and they can sometimes be resolved into an individual source. (wikipedia.org)
  • HZE ions are the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which have an electric charge greater than +2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the HZE ions from cosmic sources, HZE ions are produced by the Sun. During solar flares and other solar storms, HZE ions are sometimes produced in small amounts along with the more typical protons, but their energy level is substantially smaller than HZE ions from cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ionization patterns in molecules, cells, tissues, and the resulting biological harm are distinct from high-energy photon radiation-x-rays and gamma rays, which produce low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiation from secondary electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although HZE ions make up a small proportion of cosmic rays, their high charge and high energies cause them to contribute significantly to the overall biological impact of cosmic rays, making them as significant as protons in regard to biological impact. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is known for his theory on the effects of cosmic rays on cloud formation as an indirect cause of global warming. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, Svensmark and Eigil Friis-Christensen popularised a theory that linked galactic cosmic rays and global climate change mediated primarily by variations in the intensity of the solar wind, which they have termed cosmoclimatology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Svensmark and Nigel Calder published a book The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change (2007) describing the Cosmoclimatology theory that cosmic rays "have more effect on the climate than manmade CO2": "During the last 100 years cosmic rays became scarcer because unusually vigorous action by the Sun batted away many of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fewer cosmic rays meant fewer clouds-and a warmer world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The director of DTU Space, Prof. Eigil Friis-Christensen, commented: "When this enquiry into effects of cosmic rays from supernova remnants began 16 years ago, we never imagined that it would lead us so deep into time, or into so many aspects of the Earth's history. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the role of cosmic rays in cloud formation low in the Earth's atmosphere, the SKY experiment used natural muons (heavy electrons) that can penetrate even to the basement of the National Space Institute in Copenhagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • CERN plans to use an accelerator rather than rely on natural cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • CERN's multinational project will give scientists a permanent facility where they can study the effects of both cosmic rays and charged particles in the Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmology
  • born November 21, 1955) is an Armenian mathematical physicist and a professor and head of Cosmology Center at Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan, Armenia, best known for co-writing "Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity" paper with his colleague Roger Penrose, and collaborating on Roger Penrose's recent book Cycles of Time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gurzadyan and Penrose discussed information panspermia within the Conformal Cyclic Cosmology, and the cosmic microwave background radiation transferring information from pre-Big Bang aeon to ours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speaker at XXII Solvay conference on physics, keynote speaker at IXth Swiss Biennial on Science, Technics + Aesthetics on "The Large, The Small and the Human Mind", lecturer at Xth Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation constitutes a major development in modern physical cosmology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor Aničin is distinguished professor of both Institute of Physics Belgrade and Vinča Institute for Nuclear Sciences, where he leads projects is cosmology and astroparticle physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s
  • 1960s: Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson measure the temperature to be approximately 3 K. Robert Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson interpret this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang. (wikipedia.org)
  • PhD John Cameron, the developer of a more accurate dosimeter in the 1960s, was however a major critic of Morgan's error prone autobiography that was otherwise interesting for its historical detailing of the Manhattan Project's health physics evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1987
  • At the University of Tokyo he became Associate Professor in March 1963 and then Professor in March 1970 in the Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, and Emeritus Professor there in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • intensity
  • To study them, he invented an improved electronic coincidence circuit, and travelled to Eritrea to conduct experiments that showed that cosmic ray intensity from the West was significantly larger than that from the East. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1920
  • In 1928, Rossi began his career at the University of Florence, as assistant to Antonio Garbasso, who founded the University's Physics Institute in 1920. (wikipedia.org)
  • flux
  • This suggests that the progress of evolution is affected by climate variation depending on the Galactic Cosmic Ray flux. (wikipedia.org)
  • earth's
  • The laws of physics are the same in the CMB rest frame as in the earth's rest frame, as far as I know (ignoring of course any slight non-inertialness of the earth's motion). (physicsforums.com)
  • The antennas, which have an extremely low side-lobe response of less than -65 dB past 60{sup o}, reject anisotropic radiation from the earth's surface. (unt.edu)
  • 1948
  • He designed mines for the U.S. Navy during World War II, before obtaining his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University in 1948 and working as a scientific liaison officer in the U.S. Embassy in London. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar
  • Yes, in some sense, the cosmic microwave backgrond (CMB) does the provide an absolute cosmological frame, and our solar system is not at rest with respect to this frame. (physicsforums.com)
  • For HZE ions that originate from solar particle events (SPEs), there is only a small contribution toward a person's absorbed dose of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Henrik Svensmark (born 1958) is a physicist and professor in the Division of Solar System Physics at the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space) in Copenhagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectrum
  • The Physical Sciences Resource Center (PSRC) is a project of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) which provides teacher resources for the entire spectrum of learners. (physics.org)
  • His doctoral thesis was titled, "The density spectrum and latitude dependence of extensive cosmic ray air showers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect shows the phenomena of radiant cosmic background radiation interacting with "electron" clouds distorting the spectrum of the radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • showers
  • James Chadwick had discovered the neutron, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton transmuted lithium with high-energy protons, and Patrick Blackett and Giuseppe Occhialini used cloud chambers to demonstrate the production of electron pairs and showers by gamma radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calculations agreed with the experimental observations of cosmic ray showers made by Bruno Rossi and Pierre Victor Auger a few years before. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1955
  • He graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1951 and received a Ph.D. in physics at the University of Rochester, New York, in 1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • atmospheric
  • A second radiometer, tuned to 54 GHz near oxygen emission lines, monitors spurious signals from residual atmospheric radiation. (unt.edu)
  • Scientists are preparing detailed atmospheric physics experiments to test Svensmark's thesis, building on the Danish findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Faculty
  • In Belgrade Aničin also taught general courses in physics at the Faculty for Teachers (Pedagogical Academy). (wikipedia.org)
  • The courses are part of broader Master of Science level at Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade. (wikipedia.org)
  • postgraduate
  • From 1990 Aničin teaches History of Physics and Philosophy of Physics at postgraduate Center for Multidisciplinary Studies at University of Belgrade. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are part of postgraduate education scheme "Physics and Engineering Education for Graduated Physicists, Graduated Engineers, College Teachers, and Professors" academic discipline "M.Sc. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • His research areas covered spectral physics, earth magnetism, cosmic radiation and nuclear physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sørensen also performed research on antiprotons and on cosmic radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • JAP publishes review articles, full research articles, short communications of important new scientific and technological findings in all latest research aspects of physics. (aspbs.com)
  • Kamioka Observatory Institute for Cosmic Ray Research List of Japanese Nobel laureates List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Tokyo List of Nobel Laureates affiliated with the University of Rochester University of Rochester The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1950 to 1953, he was attached to the U.S. Embassy in London as a scientific liaison officer with the Office of Naval Research, where he studied research programs in Europe into cosmic radiation and nuclear physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • During and after holding post-doctoral research positions in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Yugoslavia, Aničin mostly taught at Belgrade University and the University of Novi Sad, at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences "Boris Kidrič" (later renamed to INS "Vinča")), and Institute of Physics Zemun (renamed to "Institute of Physics Belgrade"). (wikipedia.org)
  • nobel
  • The evidence for the first point comes from Binary Pulsar 1913+16 , which got the people who discovered it the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics. (physicsforums.com)
  • In 1978, Penzias and Wilson were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for their joint measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • bang
  • Dicke and his colleagues reasoned that the Big Bang must have scattered not only the matter that condensed into galaxies but also must have released a tremendous blast of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dicke, Peebles, Wilkinson and P. G. Roll interpreted this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang. (wikipedia.org)
  • photons
  • This component is redshifted photons that have freely streamed from an epoch when the Universe became transparent for the first time to radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mathematics
  • S. O. Sørensen studied physics and mathematics at the University of Oslo and graduated in 1947. (wikipedia.org)
  • Born in Enochville, North Carolina, Karl Morgan attended Lenoir-Rhyne College (now University) as a freshman and sophomore and then transferred to the University of North Carolina, where he graduated with bachelor's and master's degrees in physics and mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prof
  • When a friend (Bernard F. Burke, Prof. of Physics at MIT) told Penzias about a preprint paper he had seen by Jim Peebles on the possibility of finding radiation left over from an explosion that filled the universe at the beginning of its existence, Penzias and Wilson began to realize the significance of what they believed was a new discovery. (wikipedia.org)