• diaphragm
  • For the fish the nerve stops at the neck where there are gills for breathing, whereas in mammals -like us, the gills were replaced by the much lower diaphragm. (medindia.net)
  • Efferent nerves travel from the hiccup center to the diaphragm, the external intercostals, the scalene muscles, glottic structures, and the esophagus. (wiley.com)
  • chest
  • The nerve takes a tortuous course from the base of the skull to reach the strong diaphragmatic muscles in the lower section of the chest. (medindia.net)
  • Factors
  • Although topical cardiac hypothermia has been the prevailing mechanism for diaphragmatic dysfunction due to phrenic nerve injury after open-heart surgery, dissection of the internal mammary artery with electrocautery, traction, or vascular compromise to the phrenic nerve, or a combination, could be additional factors. (annals.org)