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  • diaphragm
  • For the fish the nerve stops at the neck where there are gills for breathing, whereas in mammals -like us, the gills were replaced by the much lower diaphragm. (medindia.net)
  • Efferent nerves travel from the hiccup center to the diaphragm, the external intercostals, the scalene muscles, glottic structures, and the esophagus. (wiley.com)
  • chest
  • The nerve takes a tortuous course from the base of the skull to reach the strong diaphragmatic muscles in the lower section of the chest. (medindia.net)
  • Factors
  • Although topical cardiac hypothermia has been the prevailing mechanism for diaphragmatic dysfunction due to phrenic nerve injury after open-heart surgery, dissection of the internal mammary artery with electrocautery, traction, or vascular compromise to the phrenic nerve, or a combination, could be additional factors. (annals.org)
  • neck
  • Injury to the phrenic nerve frequently occurs during chest and neck surgeries, such as coronary artery bypass graft placement and carotid endarterectomy, according to the UCLA Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. (reference.com)
  • Previously when i was working t hrough the mystery of pain in my left shoulde r, UK Osteopath Andrew Bellamy in the comments of that post suggested to keep in mind any mid neck issues (C5-C6) since this is an area where nerves running into the rotator cuff muscles can get squished. (begin2dig.com)
  • When neck nerves get squished they certainly can refer out to the shoulder. (begin2dig.com)
  • pulmonary
  • Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation : phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • The root is formed by the bronchus, the pulmonary artery, the pulmonary veins, the bronchial arteries and veins, the pulmonary plexuses of nerves, lymphatic vessels, bronchial lymph nodes, and areolar tissue, all of which are enclosed by a reflection of the pleura. (wikipedia.org)
  • carotid
  • Type I glomus cells of carotid bodies detect the change in oxygen levels and release neurotransmitters towards the carotid sinus nerve, which in turn stimulates the brain, ultimately resulting in increased ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ablation
  • Role of high-resolution image integration to visualize left phrenic nerve and coronary arteries during epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation. (nih.gov)
  • Epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation is associated with risks of coronary artery (CA) and phrenic nerve (PN) injury. (nih.gov)
  • anterior
  • The phrenic nerve descends obliquely with the internal jugular vein across the anterior scalene, deep to the prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia and the transverse cervical and suprascapular arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the left, the phrenic nerve crosses anterior to the first part of the subclavian artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suprapsinatus nerve, ([Cocc/5/6), which runs through the anterior and middle scalenes, close to the levator scapulae (vital for shoulder shrugging), into the supraspinatus fossa via the notch, under the periosteum (therefore tethered and liable to neural stretching) laterally. (begin2dig.com)
  • stretch
  • It's the shape of these plexi that give the nerve fibers, well, give for being able to stretch, compress, torque and move with the body. (begin2dig.com)
  • suprascapular
  • Indeed, here's a wee bit more on the neuropathy of this often troubling site of the suprascapular nerve and the rotator cuff muscles it innervates. (begin2dig.com)

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  • motor
  • Parasympathetic nerves are motor to musculature of gall bladder and bile ducts, but inhibitory to the sphincters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impingement
  • Impingement of the nerve root at S1 causes symptoms such as weakness at the back of the calf, numbness on the outside of the foot, difficulty with foot pus. (reference.com)
  • shoulder
  • Since the nervous system is the governor of the body, and the body responds quickly to threats to it (as in the arthrokinetic reflex), it seemed like an idea to look for any nerve responses about the shoulder. (begin2dig.com)
  • It was thinking back to Andrew's comments that made me wonder about a nerve squish troubling my shoulder. (begin2dig.com)
  • distributes
  • Avery Biomedical Devices is a biomedical engineering and device company that invented and distributes the Mark IV Breathing Pacemaker, a Phrenic Nerve Pacing device used for patients in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Because injury to the phrenic nerve is so rare, it is often difficult for patients to find adequate care and complete resolution of nerve damage, according to the UCLA Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. (reference.com)
  • Common patient diagnoses for phrenic nerve pacing include patients with spinal cord injury, central sleep apnea (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • If the recurrent larangyl nerve is targeted, the pharynx will begin to atrophy and voice function may be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulation of breathing and ventilatory response in surfactant-depleted young cats during PAV and during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) early after surfactant instillation in relation to phrenic nerve activity (PNA) and the activity of PSRs. (diva-portal.org)
  • impulses
  • both of these phenomena are due to stimulation of themyoneural junctions in the intraocular muscles, foratropine removes the contraction and at the same time interrupts purchase generic zolpiem online india thepassage of impulses from the nerve to the muscle. (rmbsales.com)
  • Local anesthetics act on the voltage-gated sodium channels that conduct electrical impulses and mediate fast depolarization along nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagus nerve
  • Kidney failure Stroke Multiple sclerosis Meningitis Damage to the vagus nerve after surgery A recent explanation by Howes in 2012 suggests that hiccups may have evolved along with other reflexes developed in mammals that allow them to coordinate suckling milk and breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • The advantages of nerve blocks over general anesthesia include faster recovery, monitored anesthesia care vs. intubation with an airway tube, and much less postoperative pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • He promoted the use of anatomical information in surgery, for example to manipulate internal organs using long needles before cutting the body open, and was one of the first to conduct detailed research on normal corpses (rather than only diseased or anomalous ones), publishing a series of detailed books covering specific aspects of anatomy, such as the nerves of the hands and the blood vessels of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Block
  • The nerve block, called an interscalene block, may be performed prior to arm or shoulder surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve block involving the injection of local anesthetic as close to the nerve as possible for pain relief. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of the nerve block is to prevent pain by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the surgical site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of the block is mostly influenced by the amount of time the anesthetic is near the nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of the nerve block depends on the type of local anesthetics used and the amount injected around the target nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Block duration can be prolonged with use of a vasoconstrictor such as epinephrine, which decreases the diffusion of the anesthetic away from the nerve. (wikipedia.org)