• protein
  • The membranous photoreceptor protein opsin contains a pigment molecule called retinal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor (PNR), also known as NR2E3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR2E3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma membrane domains of polarized cells display distinct protein and lipid compositions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mutant phenotype of mbt is characterised by fewer neurones in the brain and the eye, indicating a role of the protein in cell proliferation, differentiation or survival. (biologists.org)
  • This novel retina-specific protein was considered to be a new member of the LRR and Ig superfamily and was named Pal (photoreceptor-associated LRR superfamily). (jneurosci.org)
  • Photoreceptor deactivation and retinal degeneration mediated by a photoreceptor-specific protein kinase C. Science, 254(5037), 1478-1478. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213560980 Kojima, D. Mori S., Torii M., Wada, A., Morishita R., & Fukada, Y. (2011) UV-Sensitive Photoreceptor Protein OPN5 in Humans and Mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • T regulatory cell adhesion to antigen presenting dendritic cell causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting dendritic cells toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large biomolecules, for example, nucleic acid and protein, are precluded from cytoplasmic transfer between cells through gap junction connexin channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, five different functions have been ascribed to gap junction protein: Electrical and metabolic coupling between cells Electrical and metabolic exchange through hemichannels Tumor suppressor genes (Cx43, Cx32 and Cx36) Adhesive function independent of conductive gap junction channel (neural migration in neocortex) Role of carboxyl-terminal in signaling cytoplasmic pathways (Cx43) Gap Junctions have been observed in various animal organs and tissues where cells contact each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • All animal rhodopsins arose (by gene duplication and divergence) late in the history of the large GPCR [G-Protein Coupled Receptor] gene family, which itself arose after the divergence of plants, fungi, choanflagellates and sponges from the earliest animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N. crassa NOP-1 protein exhibits a photocycle and conserved H+ translocation residues that suggest that this putative photoreceptor is a slow H+ pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Polarized exocytosis plays a major role in development and cell differentiation but the mechanisms that target exocytosis to specific membrane domains in animal cells are still poorly understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sec6 mutations cause cell lethality and disrupt plasma membrane growth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, some molecules such as steroid hormones are lipid-soluble and thus cross the plasma membrane to reach nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain the photopigment melanopsin in varying quantities along the cell membrane, including on the axons up to the optic disc, the soma, and dendrites of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent study shows that fascin also localizes to invadopodia, membrane protrusions formed at the adherent cell surface that facilitate extracellular matrix (ECM) invasion, this provide a potential molecular mechanism for how fascin increases the invasiveness of cancer cells since fascin expression is upregulated in a spectrum of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • At gap junctions, the intercellular space is between 2 and 4 nm and unit connexons in the membrane of each cell are aligned with one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • When different connexins join together to form one connexon, it is called a heteromeric connexon Two hemichannels, joined together across a cell membrane comprise a Gap Junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Activated PAK4 can also induce loss of cell adhesion and anchorage-independent growth, characteristic features of oncogenic transformation. (biologists.org)
  • On the basis of its structural features and localization pattern, Pal may act as a receptor for a certain trophic factor or for an adhesion molecule participating in morphogenesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • The role of Fascin in regulating cytoskeletal structures for the maintenance of cell adhesion, coordinating motility and invasion through interactions with signalling pathways is an active area of research especially from the cancer biology perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • changes in cytosolic ion concentrations provide an integrative feedback about the functional state of the cell to many intracellular processes and pathways. (physiology.org)
  • synapse
  • In addition to CTLA-4 CD80/CD86 interaction fascin dependent polarization of cytoskeleton towards dendritic cell Treg immune synapse play a pivotal role. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • PNR is a member of the nuclear receptor super family of intracellular transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated interactions between two intracellular messenger ions, protons and calcium (Ca 2+ ), in salamander photoreceptor inner segments loaded with Ca 2+ and pH indicator dyes. (physiology.org)
  • Despite the known susceptibility of intracellular Ca 2+ signals to endogenous protons, little is known about proton-Ca 2+ interactions in photoreceptor cytosol. (physiology.org)
  • These spectral sensitivities are in excellent agreement with intracellular recordings of the R8p and R8y cells measured in Calliphora and Musca . (jneurosci.org)
  • epithelial
  • Fascin binds beta-catenin, and colocalizes with it at the leading edges and borders of epithelial and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The expression of either Rh5 or Rh6 in "blind" ninaE 17 mutant flies, which lack the gene encoding the visual pigment of the R1-R6 cells, fully rescues the light response. (jneurosci.org)
  • Crx , an Otx -like homeobox gene, is expressed primarily in the photoreceptors of the retina and in the pinealocytes of the pineal gland. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have generated transgenic mice, using 5′- and/or 3′-flanking sequences from the mouse Crx homeobox gene fused to the β-galactosidase ( lacZ ) reporter gene, and we have investigated the promoter function of the cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression of Crx . (jneurosci.org)
  • droplets
  • Terns, gulls and albatrosses are amongst the seabirds which have red or yellow oil droplets in the colour receptors to improve distance vision especially in hazy conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • These molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • The prevalence of basement membranes in the tissues of Eumetazoans means that most cell types require attachment to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the MR family catalyze light-driven ion translocation across microbial cytoplasmic membranes or serve as light receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • segment
  • Farther back still is the inner segment, a specialized part of the cell full of mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, closest to the brain (and farthest from the field of view) is the outer segment, the part of the photoreceptor that absorbs light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, recent studies have implicated changes in photoreceptor pH i in dysfunctional Ca 2+ homeostasis and photoreceptor degeneration ( 10 , 83 ), further underscoring the need to understand pH i -[Ca 2+ ] i interactions in the inner segment where the apoptotic machinery is localized. (physiology.org)
  • Both rod and cone photoreceptors elaborate a specialized structure, the outer segment, to catch the light. (jneurosci.org)
  • mammals
  • ipRGCs are photoreceptor cells which are particularly sensitive to the absorption of short-wavelength (blue) visible light and communicate information directly to the area of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), also known as the central "body clock", in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • opsin
  • The photoreceptor cells differ in their position within the ommatidium, their synaptic connections within the optic lobes of the brain, and the opsin genes they express. (jneurosci.org)
  • This observation was confirmed by coimmunostaining of dissociated retinal cells with the lacZ and opsin antibodies. (jneurosci.org)
  • pineal
  • All of the independent transgenic lines commonly showed lacZ expression in the photoreceptor cells of the retina and in the pinealocytes of the pineal gland. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interestingly, it recently has been reported that many photoreceptor-specific genes also are expressed in the pineal gland in which Crx is expressed ( Blackshaw and Snyder, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The pineal gland is related evolutionarily to the photoreceptors in the retina. (jneurosci.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to yeast cells, where the exocyst contributes to all major secretory events, the metazoan exocyst appears to have more specialized functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • respectively
  • Electrophysiological analysis showed that the maximal spectral sensitivity of the R1-R6 cells is shifted to 437 or 508 nm when Rh5 or Rh6, respectively, is expressed in these cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The rhabdomeres are arranged concentrically with the six peripheral rhabdomeres of the R1-R6 cells surrounding one central rhabdomere formed by the R7 or R8 cells in the distal or proximal portion of the ommatidium, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • light
  • The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation) into signals that can stimulate biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This explains why colors cannot be seen at low light levels: only one type of photoreceptor cell is active. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the photoreceptor cell is to convert the light energy of the photon into a form of energy communicable to the nervous system and readily usable to the organism: This conversion is called signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zuzanna Błaszczak, Moritz Kreysing, and Jochen Guck, "Direct observation of light focusing by single photoreceptor cell nuclei," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • Continuous acid loading can have marked consequences for photoreceptor light sensitivity and output ( 31 - 32 , 45 , 77 ). (physiology.org)
  • The retina is a very sensitive light detector, and the photoreceptor cells in the retina are essential for vision formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Molecular and evolutionary aspects of the light-signal transduction by microbial sensory receptors have been reviewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nocturnal species have tubular eyes, low numbers of colour detectors, but a high density of rod cells which function well in poor light. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • It is stabilized by a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic surface since it is often found inside cell cytoplasm in the formation of filopodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • ipRGCs
  • ipRGCs are both pre- and postsynaptic to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA cells) via reciprocal synapses, with ipRGCs sending excitatory signals to the DA cells and the DA cells sending inhibitory signals to the ipRGCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • This requirement has led to the development of complex mechanotransduction pathways, allowing cells to sense the stiffness of the substratum. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • In the case of steroid hormone receptors, their stimulation leads to binding to the promoter region of steroid-responsive genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • We characterized the transgenic lines in detail for cell-specific lacZ expression patterns by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β- d -galactoside staining and lacZ immunostaining. (jneurosci.org)
  • The lacZ expression was observed in developing and developed photoreceptor cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • This study demonstrates that the mouse Crx 5′-upstream genomic sequence is capable of directing a cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression of Crx in photoreceptor cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • These expression patterns of Pal appeared to be correlated with the development of the photoreceptor outer segments, because in the adult rat retina it was specifically localized in these segments. (jneurosci.org)
  • Abnormal fascin expression or function has been implicated in breast cancer, colon cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, gallbladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Because defining the mechanisms of regulation of photoreceptor-specific genes is important to understanding the regulation of cell type specificity, mechanisms of transcriptional regulations of these photoreceptor-specific molecules have been studied extensively. (jneurosci.org)
  • components
  • Although it is reversible upon T regulatory cell disengagement, this sequestration of essential cytoskeletal components causes a lethargic state of dendritic cells, leading to reduced T cell priming. (wikipedia.org)