• urea
  • This metabolite has been previously linked to cognitive impairment in patients with liver failure and in patients with inborn errors of urea synthesis," said Dr. Tamura. (medindia.net)
  • Biochemistry - allows the vet to check the levels of urea and creatinine which are two waste products produced by the body that the kidneys should eliminate. (swadlincotevets.co.uk)
  • The levels of urea and creatinine increase as kidney disease progresses. (swadlincotevets.co.uk)
  • Measuring the level of two waste products in the blood, namely blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (CREA), indicates decreased kidney function. (newportharborvets.com)
  • Both uremia and the uremic syndrome have been used interchangeably to denote a very high plasma urea concentration that is the result of renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prerenal azotemia can be caused by decreased blood flow through the kidneys (e.g. low blood pressure, congestive heart failure, shock, bleeding, dehydration) or by increased production of urea in the liver via a high protein diet or increased protein catabolism (e.g. stress, fever, major illness, corticosteroid therapy or gastrointestinal bleeding). (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentrations of solutes (for example potassium, phosphorus and urea) are undesirably high in the blood, but low or absent in the dialysis solution, and constant replacement of the dialysate ensures that the concentration of undesired solutes is kept low on this side of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of impaired production of urea, blood urea does not represent the degree of kidney impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor lysis syndrome is characterized by high blood potassium (hyperkalemia), high blood phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia), low blood calcium (hypocalcemia), high blood uric acid (hyperuricemia), and higher than normal levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and other nitrogen-containing compounds (azotemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Other health problems can emerge long before kidney failure occurs. (empowher.com)
  • If a major stress such as illness or surgery occurs, the kidneys may fail, sending the blood test values up quickly. (newportharborvets.com)
  • Anticoagulants are defined as chronic (death occurs one to two weeks after ingestion of the lethal dose, rarely sooner), single-dose (second generation) or multiple-dose (first generation) rodenticides, acting by effective blocking of the vitamin K cycle, resulting in inability to produce essential blood-clotting factors - mainly coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and VII (proconvertin). (wikipedia.org)
  • inability
  • In addition to the inability to filter blood, renal failure results in the body's inability to make some vitamins and minerals (example: vitamin D), as well as difficulty excreting excessive amounts of certain vitamins and minerals (example: phosphorus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron- Kidney damage results in inability of the kidney to produce erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low activated vitamin D3 levels are a result of the damaged kidneys' inability to convert vitamin D3 into its active form, calcitriol, and result in further hypocalcaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • As kidney function declines further the ability of the kidney to elimate waste products from the body declines and these start to build up in the body - this is called uraemia and the toxins are referred to as uraemic toxins. (swadlincotevets.co.uk)
  • The body must increase the amount of blood flowing through the kidneys since less and less of the metabolic toxins are being removed each time. (newportharborvets.com)
  • from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • This can result in: Feeling tired or weak Memory problems Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Low blood pressure Normally, proteins are too large to pass through the kidneys, however, they are able to pass through when the glomeruli are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D- Normally, the kidney changes vitamin D into its active form, vitamin D3, which helps you absorb calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • parathyroid
  • This may worsen the overproduction of parathyroid hormone (hyperparathyroidism), and may lead to renal osteodystrophy, calcification of blood vessels and is associated with cardiovascular mortality (the so-called chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder, CKD-MBD). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is usually seen in cases of chronic kidney disease or defective calcium receptors on the surface of parathyroid glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the trade name Zemplar) is a drug used for the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone) associated with chronic renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythropoietin
  • For example, if the kidneys stop producing enough erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that tells the bones to make red blood cells, anemia can develop. (empowher.com)
  • As the kidneys fail, they produce less erythropoietin, resulting in decreased production of red blood cells to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • healthy
  • When healthy, the kidneys are responsible for the continuous filtration of blood in order to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and organic solute balance in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • fail
  • When kidneys fail to filter properly, waste accumulates in the blood and the body, a condition called azotemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dogs
  • Sadly, one in three mature dogs get kidney failure. (medhelp.org)
  • The Azodyl helps to slow down uremic toxin buildup and prevent further kidney damage in dogs, so again, stay with it for now. (medhelp.org)
  • When kidney failure strikes man's best friend, the diagnosis may feel as if it cast a dark shadow of uncertainty and apprehension over the strong bond dogs and dog owners share. (hubpages.com)
  • Indeed, the average age of dogs affected by kidney failure is around 7 to 14 years old. (hubpages.com)
  • Dogs affected by kidney failure will exhibit a variety of clinical signs. (hubpages.com)
  • This fluid loss causes dogs to easily become dehydrated and therefore, dogs affected by kidney failure will compensate by drinking more. (hubpages.com)
  • However, according to DogAware .com (a comprehensive website discussing treatment options in dogs affected by renal failure) there are a lot of studies and articles that debunk such myths recommending instead to feed moderate amounts of high quality protein and limited phosphorus. (hubpages.com)
  • Many owners of dogs affected by early renal failure decide to rely more on home made diets versus feeding a commercial one. (hubpages.com)
  • Why do dogs need phosphorus? (infobarrel.com)
  • In short, dogs could not survive without adequate amounts of phosphorus (see below for daily intake guidelines) - but on the other hand, excessive amounts circulating in the body without correction will lead to disastrous health consequences over time. (infobarrel.com)
  • In dogs, chronic kidney failure is associated with aging, and in simple terms can be considered to be "wearing out" of the kidney tissues. (newportharborvets.com)
  • For most small dogs, the early signs of kidney failure occur at about ten to fourteen years of age. (newportharborvets.com)
  • However, large dogs have a shorter life span and may undergo kidney failure as early as seven years of age. (newportharborvets.com)
  • Stones can form in any part of the urinary tract in dogs and cats, but unlike in humans, stones of the kidney are less common and do not often cause significant disease, although they can contribute to pyelonephritis and chronic renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • The causes of adult osteomalacia are varied, but ultimately result in a vitamin D deficiency: Insufficient nutritional quantities or faulty metabolism of vitamin D or phosphorus Renal tubular acidosis Malnutrition during pregnancy Malabsorption syndrome Hypophosphatemia Chronic kidney failure Tumor-induced osteomalacia (Oncogenic osteomalacia) Long-term anticonvulsant therapy Celiac disease Cadmium poisoning, itai-itai disease Biochemical features are similar to those of rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acidic metabolism end-products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are also excreted through the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • People with diabetes can be at risk of kidney disease. (empowher.com)
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (mayoclinic.org)
  • marker of vascular endothelial dysfunction an important prognostic marker for kidney disease in diabetes mellitus in hypertension in post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis increasing microalbuminuria during the first 48 hours after admission to an intensive care unit predicts elevated risk for acute respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, and overall mortality a risk factor for venous thromboembolism Microalbuminuria is an important adverse predictor of glycemic outcomes in pre-diabetes. (wikipedia.org)