• urea
  • This metabolite has been previously linked to cognitive impairment in patients with liver failure and in patients with inborn errors of urea synthesis," said Dr. Tamura. (medindia.net)
  • Biochemistry - allows the vet to check the levels of urea and creatinine which are two waste products produced by the body that the kidneys should eliminate. (swadlincotevets.co.uk)
  • The levels of urea and creatinine increase as kidney disease progresses. (swadlincotevets.co.uk)
  • Protein can not only provide necessary nutritions to our body, it can also produce the waste product, such as urea nitrogen, the high level of which in blood will cause more damage to kidneys. (kidneyfailureweb.com)
  • Measuring the level of two waste products in the blood, namely blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (CREA), indicates decreased kidney function. (newportharborvets.com)
  • Both uremia and the uremic syndrome have been used interchangeably to denote a very high plasma urea concentration that is the result of renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prerenal azotemia can be caused by decreased blood flow through the kidneys (e.g. low blood pressure, congestive heart failure, shock, bleeding, dehydration) or by increased production of urea in the liver via a high protein diet or increased protein catabolism (e.g. stress, fever, major illness, corticosteroid therapy or gastrointestinal bleeding). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of impaired production of urea, blood urea does not represent the degree of kidney impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • As kidney function declines further the ability of the kidney to elimate waste products from the body declines and these start to build up in the body - this is called uraemia and the toxins are referred to as uraemic toxins. (swadlincotevets.co.uk)
  • The body must increase the amount of blood flowing through the kidneys since less and less of the metabolic toxins are being removed each time. (newportharborvets.com)
  • from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESRD
  • It is most ofter found in patients with end-stage (chronic) renal disease (ESRD) and is characterized by increased rates of both bone formation and bone resorption due to increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). (readabstracts.com)
  • excrete
  • Healthy dogs will typically excrete any excessive amounts of phosphorus, which means there is no need to quantify or control the amounts taken in from a varied, nutritious and good quality diet. (infobarrel.com)
  • Dogs with progressive kidney failure that cannot excrete phosphorus are prone to developing complications that will cause a rapid worsening of the condition, as well as other associated symptoms and disorders. (infobarrel.com)
  • There are some nutrients that are restricted in renal failure patients because of the body's inability to excrete excessive amounts of them due to the kidneys not functioning properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Other health problems can emerge long before kidney failure occurs. (empowher.com)
  • If a major stress such as illness or surgery occurs, the kidneys may fail, sending the blood test values up quickly. (newportharborvets.com)
  • Anticoagulants are defined as chronic (death occurs one to two weeks after ingestion of the lethal dose, rarely sooner), single-dose (second generation) or multiple-dose (first generation) rodenticides, acting by effective blocking of the vitamin K cycle, resulting in inability to produce essential blood-clotting factors - mainly coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and VII (proconvertin). (wikipedia.org)
  • inability
  • In addition to the inability to filter blood, renal failure results in the body's inability to make some vitamins and minerals (example: vitamin D), as well as difficulty excreting excessive amounts of certain vitamins and minerals (example: phosphorus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron- Kidney damage results in inability of the kidney to produce erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low activated vitamin D3 levels are a result of the damaged kidneys' inability to convert vitamin D3 into its active form, calcitriol, and result in further hypocalcaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients with kidney failure
  • Retention of certain metabolites in the blood may contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with kidney failure, revealed a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN). (medindia.net)
  • To investigate a potential link between retained metabolites and cognitive impairment, Manjula Kurella Tamura (Stanford University and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto) and her colleagues analyzed the blood of 141 patients with kidney failure who took tests on cognitive function. (medindia.net)
  • Retention of certain metabolites in the blood may contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with kidney failure. (medindia.net)
  • When the researchers screened for the metabolites in an additional 180 patients with kidney failure, the association between 4-hydroxyphenylacetate and impaired cognitive function was replicated. (medindia.net)
  • however, the disease is not limited to patients with kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • parathyroid
  • As a result of this disease almost all patients retain the nonmetallic element phosphorus, an excess of which can lead to hyperparathyroidism (excess parathyroid production) and nonbone calcifications. (readabstracts.com)
  • This may worsen the overproduction of parathyroid hormone (hyperparathyroidism), and may lead to renal osteodystrophy, calcification of blood vessels and is associated with cardiovascular mortality (the so-called chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder, CKD-MBD). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is usually seen in cases of chronic kidney disease or defective calcium receptors on the surface of parathyroid glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the trade name Zemplar) is a drug used for the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone) associated with chronic renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In three placebo-controlled studies, chronic renal failure patients treated with paricalcitol achieved a mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) reduction of 30% in six weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythropoietin
  • For example, if the kidneys stop producing enough erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that tells the bones to make red blood cells, anemia can develop. (empowher.com)
  • As the kidneys fail, they produce less erythropoietin, resulting in decreased production of red blood cells to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system, producing erythropoietin, calcitriol and renin. (wikipedia.org)
  • fail
  • When kidneys fail to filter properly, waste accumulates in the blood and the body, a condition called azotemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • In short, dogs could not survive without adequate amounts of phosphorus (see below for daily intake guidelines) - but on the other hand, excessive amounts circulating in the body without correction will lead to disastrous health consequences over time. (infobarrel.com)
  • Vets usually suggest restricting phosphorus intake from the point of diagnosis. (infobarrel.com)
  • Dietary phosphorus intake should remain between 800-1000 mg per day. (readabstracts.com)
  • metabolism
  • The causes of adult osteomalacia are varied, but ultimately result in a vitamin D deficiency: Insufficient nutritional quantities or faulty metabolism of vitamin D or phosphorus Renal tubular acidosis Malnutrition during pregnancy Malabsorption syndrome Hypophosphatemia Chronic kidney failure Tumor-induced osteomalacia (Oncogenic osteomalacia) Long-term anticonvulsant therapy Celiac disease Cadmium poisoning, itai-itai disease Biochemical features are similar to those of rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acidic metabolism end-products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are also excreted through the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)