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  • cofactor
  • 1. A process for preparing phenylalanine which comprises preparing an aqueous reaction mixture consisting essentially of phenylpyruvic acid or phenylpyruvate, pyridoxal -5-phosphate as a cofactor and an amine donor selected from the group consisting of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, and contacting said reaction mixture with cells immobilized with a polyazetidine polymer, the cells having transaminase activity to obtain said phenylalanine in high yield. (google.ca)
  • Because the mechanism involves a Fe(IV)=O (as opposed to a peroxypterin) hydroxylating intermediate, oxidation of the BH4 cofactor and hydroxylation of phenylalanine can be decoupled, resulting in unproductive consumption of BH4 and formation of H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenylketonuria
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inherited disease that, if left untreated, results in retarded mental development in children, has been shown to be associated with the lack of activity of the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A diet rich in foods that contain lots phenylalanine are not suitable for people with phenylketonuria. (botanical-online.com)
  • On the other hand, a rare metabolic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) occurs in people who are missing an enzyme that the body needs to use phenylalanine. (umm.edu)
  • Warning labels on chewing gum that indicate the presence of phenylalanine are there for the benefit of some people whose bodies cannot easily digest the chemical due to a disease called phenylketonuria. (reference.com)
  • L-phenylalanine may induce severe side effects in people who have a medical condition called phenylketonuria. (livestrong.com)
  • Phenylketonuria, also called PKU, is an inherited genetic condition that prevents the body from synthesizing the enzyme required to break down phenylalanine. (livestrong.com)
  • Lab results may report phenylalanine levels using either mg/dL and μmol/L. One mg/dL of phenylalanine is approximately equivalent to 60 μmol/L. A (rare) "variant form" of phenylketonuria called hyperphenylalaninemia is caused by the inability to synthesize a cofactor called tetrahydrobiopterin, which can be supplemented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine Racemase Phenylketonuria Takahashi H, Sato E, Kurahashi K (1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplements
  • Phenylalanine supplements, in any form, should NOT be taken for more than two or three consecutive weeks . (botanical-online.com)
  • Phenylalanine supplements may raise blood pressure by its stimulating production role of epinephrine and norepinephrine, so that is not recommended for people with hypertension , or people with a family history of hypertension. (botanical-online.com)
  • People with PKU must eat a diet that avoids phenylalanine and take tyrosine supplements for optimal brain development and growth. (umm.edu)
  • For example, Life Extension, a neutraceutical company, promotes the use of DL-phenylalanine supplements to block pain receptors in the brain, to initiate the body's own analgesic processes and to reduce inflammation. (livestrong.com)
  • According to University of Maryland Medical Center, the two known studies that examined the role of D-phenylalanine supplements for pain were positive in their results but lacked scientific reliability. (livestrong.com)
  • Pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo, or patches of white skin and discoloration, may also benefit from the use of phenylalanine supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • Additional side effects may occur following treatment with supplements that contain DL-phenylalanine. (livestrong.com)
  • Children receiving DL-phenylalanine supplements may appear unusually hyperactive or anxious, UMMC reports. (livestrong.com)
  • proteins
  • Phenylalanine contributes to the structure of proteins into which it has been incorporated by the tendency of its side chain to participate in hydrophobic interactions (see isoleucine ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • C9H11NO2
  • The first description of phenylalanine was made in 1879, when Schulze and Barbieri identified a compound with the empirical formula, C9H11NO2, in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus) seedlings. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactor
  • Because the mechanism involves a Fe(IV)=O (as opposed to a peroxypterin) hydroxylating intermediate, oxidation of the BH4 cofactor and hydroxylation of phenylalanine can be decoupled, resulting in unproductive consumption of BH4 and formation of H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • depression
  • Thus, food intake with phenylalanine may help reduce the symptoms of depression and Alzheimer's . (botanical-online.com)
  • One animal study suggests that D-phenylalanine may improve rigidity, walking disabilities, speech difficulties, and depression associated with Parkinson disease. (umm.edu)
  • Studies suggest that phenylalanine may be helpful as part of a comprehensive therapy for depression, most of the studies were done in the 1970s and 1980s and were not rigorously tested. (umm.edu)
  • More research is needed to tell whether phenylalanine has any real effect on depression. (umm.edu)
  • According to Integrative Medical Arts Group, DL-phenylalanine and phenylethylamine may improve symptoms of both Parkinson's and the depression that occurs with the disease. (livestrong.com)
  • While they both worked equally well at reducing the symptoms of depression, the D-phenylalanine showed marked improvements after just 15 days, rather than several weeks for the imipramine. (livestrong.com)
  • Pregnant
  • As of 2015, while normal amounts of phenylalanine in foods are likely safe, too much phenylalanine in a pregnant woman's system creates a risk for birth de. (reference.com)
  • Pregnant women with PKU must control their blood phenylalanine levels even if the fetus is heterozygous for the defective gene because the fetus could be adversely affected due to hepatic immaturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • DL-phenylalanine should not be used in people taking antipsychotic drugs, as it may cause or worsen symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (TD). (umm.edu)
  • aromatic
  • When productive, though, the Fe(IV)=O intermediate is added to phenylalanine in an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that reduces iron from the ferryl to the ferrous state. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The reaction catalyzed by PAL is the spontaneous, non-oxidative deamination of L-phenylalanine to yield trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The racemisation reaction of phenylalanine is coupled with the highly favorable hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate (PP), thermodynamically allowing it to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetase
  • Other names in common use include phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, phenylalanyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase, phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase, phenylalanyl-transfer RNA synthetase, phenylalanyl-tRNA ligase, phenylalanyl-transfer RNA ligase, L-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, and phenylalanine translase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) is known to be among the most complex enzymes of the aaRS (Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • richest
  • Human hemoglobin (the oxygen -carrying pigment of red blood cells ) is one of the richest sources of phenylalanine, yielding 9.6 percent by weight. (britannica.com)
  • individuals
  • Affected individuals on an unrestricted diet who have phenylalanine levels above normal but below 1200 μmol/L (20 mg/dL) are at much lower risk for impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment. (nih.gov)