• maternal
  • In 1952 the Danish physician Jørgen Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, formulated the hypothesis that maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy might cause fetal hyperglycemia, thus exposing the fetus to elevated insulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies could link higher maternal glucose to an increase in infant birth weight as well as different extents of morbidity, among other things the incidence of congenital malformations, supporting the Hypothesis, that even moderately increased blood glucose in the absence of diabetes positively influences growth in the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • The lactase persistent phenotype involves high mRNA expression, high lactase activity, and thus the ability to digest lactose, while the lactase nonpersistent phenotype involves low mRNA expression and low lactase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Fried developed biologically-based theory regarding the clinical presentation or phenotype of frailty and hypotheses regarding its etiology in dysregulation of genes and some physiologic systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speed of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockin also allows for biallelic modifications to some genes to be generated and the phenotype in mice observed in a single generation, an unprecedented timeframe. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, combinations of knockin genes lead to growing complexity in the interactions that inserted genes and their products have with other sections of the genome and can therefore lead to more side effects and difficult-to-explain phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals
  • Hypolactasia is known to be recessively and autosomally inherited, which means that individuals with the nonpersistent phenotype are homozygous and received the two copies of a low lactase-activity allele (the ancestral allele) from their parents, who may be homozygous or at least heterozygous for the allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • Less accepted versions of the hypothesis claim that changes in the biosphere are brought about through the coordination of living organisms and maintain those conditions through homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Since barriers existed throughout the Twentieth Century between Russia and the rest of the world, it is only relatively recently that the early Russian scientists who introduced concepts overlapping the Gaia hypothesis have become better known to the Western scientific community. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Gene knockin has allowed, for the first time, hypothesis-driven studies on gene modifications and resultant phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple studies indicate that the presence of the two phenotypes "lactase persistent" (derived phenotype) and "lactase nonpersistent (hypolactasia)" is genetically programmed, and that lactase persistence is not necessarily conditioned by the consumption of lactose after the suckling period. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • The hypothesis contends that this system as a whole, called Gaia, seeks a physical and chemical environment optimal for contemporary life. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Topics related to the hypothesis include how the biosphere and the evolution of organisms affect the stability of global temperature, salinity of seawater, atmospheric oxygen levels, the maintenance of a hydrosphere of liquid water and other environmental variables that affect the habitability of Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, only 17% of Greeks and 14% of Sardinians are predicted to possess this phenotype, while around 80% of Finns and Hungarians and 100% of Irish people are predicted to be lactase persistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • A gene knockin therefore can be seen as a gain of function mutation and a gene knockout a loss of function mutation, but a gene knockin may also involve the substitution of a functional gene locus for a mutant phenotype that results in some loss of function. (wikipedia.org)
  • ability
  • The distribution of the lactase persistence phenotype, or the ability to digest lactose into adulthood, is not homogeneous in the world. (wikipedia.org)