• genome
  • Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations within an organism's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microsatellites are distributed throughout the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent results suggest that most of the vast quantities of noncoding DNA within the genome have associated biochemical activities, including regulation of gene expression , organization of chromosome architecture , and signals controlling epigenetic inheritance . (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimate of the number of human genes has been repeatedly revised down from initial predictions of 100,000 or more as genome sequence quality and gene finding methods have improved, and could continue to drop further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic information about these molecules and their gene content, based on a reference genome that does not represent the sequence of any specific individual, are provided in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. (frontiersin.org)
  • The complete cp genome of C. apetalus has the length of 151,228 bp, 36.65% GC content, and a quadripartite structure with a large single copy (LSC) of 83,380 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 17,206 bp separated by inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,321 bp. (peerj.com)
  • The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 112 unique genes and 19 genes which are duplicated in the IRs. (peerj.com)
  • A genome-wide association study in catfish reveals the presence of functional hubs of related genes within QTLs for columnaris disease resistance. (auburn.edu)
  • The data reported here is the first source of genome-wide differential transcriptome sequence in two genotypes of A. squamosa , and identifies several candidate genes related to seed development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human genome sequence has revealed several novel/surprising features notably the probable presence of a mere 30-35,000 genes. (scribd.com)
  • The complete sequencing of the human genome will not only fasten the pace of gene discovery in unigene disorders, but more importantly will help in understanding the molecular basis for multigene disorders. (scribd.com)
  • methylation
  • Markers of an X reactivation event were examined: X gene dosage, expression, and methylation in 8 ovarian cancer cell lines. (ubc.ca)
  • Methylation was lower than expected for 7 of 8 ovarian cancer cell lines at AR or FMR1, while three cell lines had low or no methylation for both genes. (ubc.ca)
  • Determination of DNA Methylation of Imprinted Genes in Arabidopsis Endosperm Matthew Rea 1 , Ming Chen 1 , Shan Luan 1 , Drutdaman Bhangu 1 , Max Braud 1 , Wenyan Xiao 1 1 Department of Biology, Saint Louis University Imprinting is a phenomenon in plant and mammal reproduction. (jove.com)
  • Isolating endosperm and determining methylation status of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis can be difficult. (jove.com)
  • codons
  • Due to the triplet nature of gene expression by codons, the insertion or deletion can change the reading frame (the grouping of the codons), resulting in a completely different translation from the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • SSRs
  • Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA have been traditionally thought of as functionally unimportant and have been studied mainly as genetic markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A recent handful of studies have shown, however, that SSRs in different positions of a gene can play important roles in determining protein function, genetic development, and regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Especially notable is the much higher density of SSRs in 5'UTRs compared to the other regions and a strong affinity towards trinucleotide repeats in these regions for both rice and Arabidopsis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, recent research has shown that SSRs have many important functions in terms of development, gene regulation, and evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most recently, Fondon and Garner [ 3 ] have shown that the fast morphological evolution in domesticated dogs is due to the contraction/expansion of SSRs in the coding regions of the Alx-4 and Runx-2 genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 12 ] did a more comprehensive survey of SSRs in Arabidopsis and showed that SSRs in general were more favored in upstream regions of genes and that trinucleotide repeats were the most common repeats found in the coding regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • myoglobin
  • Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of myoglobin and cytoglobin genes in response to heat stress in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (auburn.edu)
  • different genes
  • Expression was inconsistent between different genes and among cell lines, ranging from a 2 to 300-fold increase compared to a control. (ubc.ca)
  • overexpression
  • Overexpression of Mre11p or Rad50p suppresses the inhibition of DSB repair by CAG 98 and significantly increases the average size of expansions found at the recipient locus. (embopress.org)
  • Skewed somatic X inactivation (XCI), X-linked gene overexpression and abnormal X content have been associated with breast and ovarian cancer. (ubc.ca)
  • Partial or complete reactivation of the inactive X in females may be a step in breast and ovarian cancer progression, leading to overexpression of some tumour enhancing gene. (ubc.ca)
  • Queen's University, 2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Medical Genetics) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 2007  Sara Helen Alison Harbord, 2007 ii Abstract Skewed somatic X inactivation (XCI), X-linked gene overexpression and abnormal X content have been associated with breast and ovarian cancer. (ubc.ca)
  • disease
  • The increasing availability of DNA amplification by PCR at the beginning of the 1990s triggered a large number of studies using the amplification of microsatellites as genetic markers for forensic medicine, for paternity testing, and for positional cloning to find the gene underlying a trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second, related DNA-triplet repeat disease, fragile X-E syndrome, was also identified on the X chromosome, but was found to be the result of an expanded CGG repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying trinucleotide repeats as the basis of disease has brought clarity to our understanding of a complex set of inherited neurological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Category I includes Huntington's disease (HD) and the spinocerebellar ataxias that are caused by a CAG repeat expansion in protein-coding portions of specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These disorders are characterized by autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance (with the exception of spino-bulbar muscular atrophy, which shows X-linked inheritance), midlife onset, a progressive course, and a correlation of the number of CAG repeats with the severity of disease and the age at onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty-four percent of FECD subjects and 5% of control individuals harbor more than 50 trinucleotide repeats, which was considered as the disease threshold. (arvojournals.org)
  • 4 , 5 So far, many genes have been attributed to cause this disease, thereby revealing its genetic complexity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Transcription factor 4 ( TCF4 ), that encodes for E2-2 protein, a group of E protein transcription factors known for cellular growth and differentiation, is one such gene that has been associated with this disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • In particular, we test whether they share the hypermutability of the longer tandem repeats and whether disease-related genes have a higher STR content than non-disease-related genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In concordance, most known repeat-related diseases are caused by expansion of 3-repeat elements (Trinucleotide Disease) in relatively long tandem repeats [ 15 ], but other types of length variations may likewise contribute to disease risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we focus on a class of very short tandem repeats and their contribution to disease risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response. (auburn.edu)
  • For instance, expansion of CAG repeats in the coding region of HD genes in humans can lead to Huntington's disease, most likely through activation of so-called 'toxic' proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • diseases
  • As more repeat expansion diseases have been discovered, several categories have been established to group them based upon similar characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • These diseases are characterized by typically much larger repeat expansions than the first two groups, and the repeats are located outside of the protein-coding regions of the genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most inherited diseases are rare, but taken together, the more than 6,000 disorders known to result from single altered genes rob millions of healthy and productive lives. (scribd.com)
  • tumor
  • Expression of tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish after bacterial infections. (auburn.edu)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the phenotype of traits linked to genes found in either chloroplasts or mitochondria are determined exclusively by the maternal parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mre11 complex thus appears to be directly involved in removing CAG or CTG hairpins that arise frequently during DNA synthesis accompanying gene conversion of these trinucleotide repeats. (embopress.org)
  • protein
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania demonstrated that in fruit flies, a protein previously known to bind CUG repeats (muscleblind, or mbl) is also capable of binding CAG repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most (though probably not all) genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are an estimated 19,000-20,000 human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human androgen receptor (AR) is a protein encoded by a gene located on the proximal long arm of the X chromosome (locus Xq11-Xq12). (wikipedia.org)
  • The group of 112 unique genes features 73 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, four rRNA genes and five conserved chloroplast open reading frames (ORFs). (peerj.com)
  • Information regarding non-protein coding genes as well as regulatory regions has thrown up several new areas of research. (scribd.com)
  • disorders
  • citation needed] Currently, nine neurologic disorders are known to be caused by an increased number of CAG repeats, typically in coding regions of otherwise unrelated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] At present there are 14 documented trinucleotide repeat disorders that affect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Trinucleotide repeat disorders generally show genetic anticipation, where their severity increases with each successive generation that inherits them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these strategies have the potential for future use in gene therapy for trinucleotide repeat disorders. (lidsen.com)
  • Out of the more than 6000 recorded inherited disorders only 75 were traced back to their genes using positional cloning and other approaches. (scribd.com)
  • phylogenetic
  • Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: Identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress. (auburn.edu)
  • intron
  • If the repeat is present in an intron it can cause toxic effects by forming spherical clusters called RNA foci in cell nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The clinical phenotype associated with MAIS is a normal male habitus with mild spermatogenic defect and / or reduced secondary terminal hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, repeat regions with proximal repeats are more likely to be mutated. (g3journal.org)
  • secondary
  • Examples of MAIS phenotypes include isolated infertility (oligospermia or azoospermia), mild gynecomastia in young adulthood, decreased secondary terminal hair, high pitched voice, or minor hypospadias repair in childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data indicate that repair‐ associated DNA synthesis is inhibited by secondary structures formed by CAG 98 and that these structures promote repeat expansions during DSB repair. (embopress.org)
  • simple
  • A total of 2629 (Sitaphal) and 3445 (NMK-1) Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) motifs were identified respectively in the two genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • dependent
  • Because this phenotype is dependent only on the presence of the invader in the host cell's cytoplasm, inheritance will be determined only by the infected status of the maternal parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansions are apparently dependent on the property of the repeat array to form hairpins, since DSB repair of a CAA 87 repeat induces only contractions of the repeat sequence. (embopress.org)
  • Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges. (auburn.edu)
  • human
  • The human homolog of mbl, MBNL1, which was originally identified as binding CUG repeats in RNA, has since been shown to bind CAG (and CCG) repeats as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • If the genotypes of both parents in a genetic cross are known, Mendel's laws can be used to determine the distribution of phenotypes expected for the population of offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • This combination functions as a transcription complex to turn on androgen gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression levels of 8 X-linked genes were assessed by real-time PCR. (ubc.ca)
  • Overall, expression was greatly increased for genes subject to inactivation but not increased in genes that escape inactivation for most ovarian cancer cell lines. (ubc.ca)