• Tannins
  • The historically important chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest widely accepted definition of polyphenols, the White-Bate-Smith-Swain-Haslam (WBSSH) definition, was offered and justified by natural product and organic chemist Edwin Haslam and co-workers, based on the earlier natural products research of Edgar Charles Bate-Smith , Anthony Swain , and Theodore White that characterized specific structural characteristics common to plant phenolics used in tanning (i.e., the tannins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, many larger polyphenols are biosynthesized in-situ from smaller polyphenols to nonhydrolyzable tannins and remain undiscovered in the plant matrix. (wikipedia.org)

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  • aromatic
  • Phenol-phenolate equilibrium, and resonance structures giving rise to phenol aromatic reactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name derives from the Ancient Greek word πολύς ( polus , meaning "many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching to an aromatic benzenoid ( phenyl ) ring, an hydroxyl (-OH) group akin to that found in alcohols (hence the -ol suffix). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring(s) in the same molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols (since the hydroxyl group is not bonded to a saturated carbon atom). (wikipedia.org)
  • The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids (their pKa is usually between 10 and 12). (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of a hydrogen cation (H+) from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a corresponding negative phenolate ion or phenoxide ion, and the corresponding salts are called phenolates or phenoxides, although the term aryloxides is preferred according to the IUPAC Gold Book. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Catechol is produced industrially by the hydroxylation of phenol using hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • C6H5OH + H2O2 → C6H4(OH)2 + H2O Previously, it was produced by hydroxylation of salicylaldehyde using hydrogen peroxide, as well as the hydrolysis of 2-substituted phenols, especially 2-chlorophenol, with hot aqueous solutions containing alkali metal hydroxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic
  • The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • The reviewers stated that research to date had been of poor quality and that large and rigorous trials are needed better to study the science, and to investigate possible adverse effects associated with excessive polyphenol intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy
  • Healthy foods like polyphenol-rich berries and high quality edible proteins are in demand in today's functional food marketplace, but it can be difficult to formulate convenient food products with physiologically-relevant amounts of these ingredients and still maintain product quality. (rsc.org)
  • class
  • Phenol-Explorer, launched in 2009, is the only comprehensive web-based database on the content in foods of polyphenols, a major class of food bioactives that receive considerable attention due to their role in the prevention of diseases. (biomedsearch.com)