• vapor phase
  • When water vapor condenses (an equilibrium fractionation), the heavier water isotopes (18O and 2H) become enriched in the liquid phase while the lighter isotopes (16O and 1H) tend toward the vapor phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sublimation is caused by the absorption of heat which provides enough energy for some molecules to overcome the attractive forces of their neighbors and escape into the vapor phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • In quantum optics, a superradiant phase transition is a phase transition that occurs in a collection of fluorescent emitters (such as atoms), between a state containing few electromagnetic excitations (as in the electromagnetic vacuum) and a superradiant state with many electromagnetic excitations trapped inside the emitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superradiant phase transition was originally predicted by the Dicke model of superradiance, which assumes that atoms have only two energetic levels and that these interact with only one mode of the electromagnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phase transition occurs when the strength of the interaction between the atoms and the field is greater than the energy of the non-interacting part of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, both the original derivation and the later corrections leading to nonexistence of the transition - due to Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule canceling for the harmonic oscillator the needed inequality to impossible negativity of the interaction - were based on the assumption that the quantum field operators are commuting numbers, and the atoms do not interact with the static Coulomb forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnetic transition of iron, where it changes from having the magnetic orientation of its atoms random and disorderly to all lined up as the material is cooled, is the classic example. (blogspot.com)
  • ferroelectric
  • If the interaction with the field is so strong that the system collapses in the harmonic approximation and complex polariton frequencies (soft modes) appear, then the physical system with nonlinear terms of the higher order becomes the system with the Mexican hat-like potential, and will undergo ferroelectric-like phase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • symmetry
  • Usually we think of phase transitions in terms of symmetry breaking (Landau Ginzburg). (physicsforums.com)
  • You can go from one phase to another without breaking symmetry. (physicsforums.com)
  • Complementary to this approach the chiral condensate as the order parameter for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is analysed in comparison with the O(4) universal scaling function which characterises a second order transition. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In a superfluid phase, this symmetry is spontaneously broken. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superfluid is characterized by long-range phase coherence, a spontaneous breaking of the Hamiltonian's continuous U ( 1 ) {\displaystyle U(1)} symmetry, a non-zero compressibility and superfluid susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • At non-zero temperature, in certain parameter regimes there will also be a regular fluid phase which does not break the U ( 1 ) {\displaystyle U(1)} symmetry and does not display phase coherence. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagram
  • Sublimation is an endothermic process that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram, which corresponds to the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • exhibit
  • These phases of matter exhibit properties and symmetries which can potentially be exploited for technological purposes and the benefit of mankind. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • At zero temperature, the Bose-Hubbard model (in the absence of disorder) is in either a Mott insulating state at small t / U {\displaystyle t/U} , or in a superfluid state at large t / U {\displaystyle t/U} . The Mott insulating phases are characterized by integer boson densities, by the existence of an energy gap for particle-hole excitations, and by zero compressibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • critical
  • Although absolute zero is not physically realizable, characteristics of the transition can be detected in the system's low-temperature behavior near the critical point. (wikipedia.org)
  • This quantum critical behavior manifests itself in unconventional and unexpected physical behavior like novel non Fermi liquid phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A superradiant phase transition is formally predicted by the critical behavior of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings model, describing the interaction of only one atom with one mode of the electromagnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, if they act like magnets close to the point where heat flips them between a magnetic and non-magnetic state: a so-called critical phase transition. (blogspot.com)
  • Cavagna is one of a small and diverse group of scientists who have begun to suspect that critical phase transitions play vital roles in a wide variety of biological systems. (blogspot.com)
  • The idea drew on a well-established notion from statistical physics: the critical phase transition, where a system of many interacting components switches suddenly from one global state of organization to another, typically from an orderly to a disorderly state. (blogspot.com)
  • Quantum phase transition Classical phase transitions Quantum critical point Sachdev, Subir (2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • superfluid
  • The superfluid transition in liquid helium is an example of this. (wikipedia.org)
  • The model rose to prominence in the 1980s after it was found to capture the essence of the superfluid-insulator transition in a way that was much more mathematically tractable than fermionic metal-insulator models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bose glass is a Griffiths phase, and can be thought of as a Mott insulator containing rare 'puddles' of superfluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bose glass phase is characterized by a finite compressibility, the absence of a gap, and by an infinite superfluid susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • suspensions
  • We review recent work on fluid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions in soft matter systems such as colloidal suspensions and star polymer solutions. (ebscohost.com)
  • In particular, we discuss the following aspects: a cascade of freezing transitions for confined colloids, stable one-component quasicrystals for charged colloids, reentrant melting and anisotropic solid phases for star polymer solutions and reentrant nematic ordering for suspensions of the tobacco-mosaic virus. (ebscohost.com)
  • Where the linearized Poissonâ€"Boltzmann cell model fails: Spurious phase separation in charged colloidal suspensions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Here I study the kinetics of phase transitions in a passive system, crystal-crystal transitions in colloids, and in an active system, swarming transition in E. coli suspensions. (nyu.edu)
  • readily
  • The transition can be readily understood by the use of the Holstein-Primakoff transformation applied to a two-level atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since PE has a small headgroup and readily forms inverted micelle phases it should, according to the stalk model, promote the formation of these stalks. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • This transition was subsequently established rigorously by Mossel, Neeman, and Sly, and Massoulie.I'll explain this transition, and give an accessible introduction to Belief Propagation and the analogy with free energy and the cavity method of statistical physics. (princeton.edu)
  • physical
  • Rapid phase transition or RPT is a phenomenon realized in liquefied natural gas (LNG) incidents in which LNG vaporizes violently upon coming in contact with water causing what is known as a physical explosion or cold explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • cubic
  • This topic also remains controversial, and even if there is a curved structure present in the fusion process, there is debate in the literature over whether it is a cubic, hexagonal or more exotic extended phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Specifically, there is a detectability transition in the stochastic block model, below which no algorithm can label nodes better than chance. (princeton.edu)