• RECEPTOR
  • Background: A major group of murine inhibitory receptors on Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the Ly49 receptor family and recognize MHC class I molecules. (diva-portal.org)
  • Hemizygous expression (expression from only one allele) of MHC class I was sufficient to induce Ly49 receptor downmodulation on NK cells to a similar degree as homozygous expression, despite a strongly reduced cell surface level of MHC class I. Co-expression of weaker MHC class I ligands in the host did not have any further effect on the degree of Ly49 downmodulation. (diva-portal.org)
  • As in previous attempts to engineer T cells, the researchers used a viral vector-in this case, part of the HIV virus-to infiltrate the T-cell, carrying with it a designed gene for an antibody to CD-19, a surface receptor found only on B-cells and CLL cancer cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • The formation of the repertoire of mouse natural killer (NK) cell receptors for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules was investigated by determining the developmental pattern of Ly49 receptor expression. (rupress.org)
  • One possible explanation for these data is that the order of Ly49 receptor expression by NK cells is nonrandom. (rupress.org)
  • A central issue in murine NK cell development concerns how Ly49 receptor expression is coupled to NK cell maturation and education processes. (rupress.org)
  • In the previous research, the scientists took CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes the "killer" T cells that help fight infection from an HIV-infected individual and identified the molecule known as the T cell receptor, which guides the T cell in recognizing and killing HIV-infected cells. (medindia.net)
  • So the researchers cloned the receptor and used this to genetically engineer human blood stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • That antigen-receptor docking activates the CAR-T cells, causing them to kill tumor cells. (statnews.com)
  • NK alloreactive donors possessed HLA class I, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligand(s) which were missing in the recipients, KIR gene(s) for missing self recognition on recipient targets, and alloreactive NK clones against recipient targets. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In haploidentical transplantations that are KIR ligand mismatched in the graft-versus-host (GvH) direction, functional donor NK cells that express as their sole inhibitory receptor for self a KIR for the HLA class I group, which is absent in the recipient, sense the missing expression of the self class I ligand on allogeneic targets and mediate alloreactions ("missing self" recognition). (bloodjournal.org)
  • An additional algorithm, termed the "missing ligand" or "receptor-ligand" model, has been proposed for predicting better outcome, ie, control of leukemia relapse and improved survival in haploidentical transplantations in children with acute leukemia, 17 , 18 in (T-cell-depleted) matched sibling 19 and in unrelated donor transplantations 20 for AML. (bloodjournal.org)
  • B cell survival requires a functional B cell receptor ( 27 ), and exposure to soluble factors ( 28 ). (rupress.org)
  • The NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D (CD314) recognizes MHC class-I-chain related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB) and ULBPs ( 1 - 6 ), while DNAM-1 binds to CD112 (Nectin-2) and CD155 (poliovirus receptor) ( 5 ) on stressed, infected, and cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the persistent NK cells in the circulation expressed significantly lower levels of the key activating receptor NKG2D and could not lyse tumor cell targets in vitro unless reactivated with IL-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NK cell inhibitory receptors are part of either the immunoglobulin-like (IgSF) superfamily or the C-type lectin-like receptor (CTLR) superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the IgSF family include the human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and the Immunoglobulin-like transcripts (ILT). (wikipedia.org)
  • They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically engineered T cells are created by harvesting T cells and then infecting the T cells with a retrovirus that contains a copy of a T cell receptor (TCR) gene that is specialised to recognise tumour antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a slowly progressing cancer that targets B-cells, immune cells that fight infection. (the-scientist.com)
  • As a result, the patients needed regular transfusions with immunoglobulin to replace the destroyed infection-fighting antibodies that B-cells provide. (the-scientist.com)
  • In a series of tests on the mice's peripheral blood, plasma and organs conducted two weeks and six weeks after introducing the engineered cells, the researchers found that the number of CD4 "helper" T cells which become depleted as a result of HIV infection increased, while levels of HIV in the blood decreased. (medindia.net)
  • These results indicated that the engineered cells were capable of developing and migrating to the organs to fight infection there. (medindia.net)
  • In contrast to MCMV, lymphocytic choromeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice seems resistant to any direct anti-viral effects of NK cells 5 , 8 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The high dose caused a precipitous drop in body weight during the first week of infection ( Fig. 1a , right ), but, thereafter, clonal exhaustion and deletion of LCMV-specific T cells resulted in a persistent infection 9 - 10 associated with minimal lung pathology ( Fig. 1b , Right ) and 100% (77 of 77) survival ( Fig. 1c , Top ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Selective depletion of NK cells using 25 µg of anti-NK1.1 mAb ( Supplemental Fig. 1 ) one day prior to high dose infection resulted in 58% (35 of 65) mortality between days 9 and 13 of infection ( Fig. 1c , Top ) associated with severe pulmonary edema (data not shown) and reduced viral titers by day 7 p.i. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast to the beneficial role of NK cells during high dose infection, NK cell-depletion prevented the severe weight loss ( Fig. 1a , Middle ) and tissue pathology ( Fig. 1b , Middle ) associated with the medium dose of LCMV. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although the study was small - it tested the genetically engineered "CAR" cells on only two monkeys as well as on cells growing in lab dishes - it suggests that after 30 years of fruitless efforts to come up with an AIDS vaccine there might be a wholly new way to get the immune system to fight HIV infection. (statnews.com)
  • The anti-HIV activity of natural killer (NK) cells could be induced fast enough to potentially prevent the establishment of HIV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NK cell education and the effect of HIV infection on iCD4 cell surface expression of MHC-I antigens both influenced NK cell responses to autologous iCD4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The frequency of KIR/HLA genotypes in HESN and in HIV susceptible subjects enrolled in an HIV primary infection cohort was compared to address whether NK cells also play a role at the level of protection from HIV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we examined the roles of endogenous class I MHC and an hCMV encoded class I homolog (UL18) in modulating NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity during hCMV infection. (rupress.org)
  • After an infection, memory T cells persist in the body to provide a faster reaction to subsequent infection by pathogens expressing the same antigen. (innerbody.com)
  • After an infection, memory B cells persist in the body to quickly produce antibodies to subsequent infection by pathogens expressing the same antigen. (innerbody.com)
  • NK cells travel within the blood and are found in the lymph nodes, spleen, and red bone marrow where they fight most types of infection. (innerbody.com)
  • Using Cox's models, only low B-cell counts at 12 ( P =0.02) and 24 ( P =0.001) months were associated with the hazard of developing late infection, in particular if patients did not develop chronic graft-versus-host disease. (haematologica.org)
  • Viral infection of the CNS tends to increase the total white cell count, while increasing the level of protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of KIR's role in killing unhealthy self-cells and not killing healthy self-cells, KIRs are involved in protection against and propensity to viral infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and tumor transformation of host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response). (wikipedia.org)
  • During an initial infection (or primary immune response) involving a T-dependent antigen, naive follicular B cells are activated in the presence of TFH cells within the follicles of secondary lymphoid organs (i.e. spleen and lymph nodes) and undergo clonal expansion to produce a foci of B cells that are specific for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these clones differentiate into the plasma cells, also called effector B cells which produce a first wave of protective antibodies and help clear the infection, but a fraction persist as dormant memory cells that survive in the body on a long-term basis after having gone through a highly mutative and selective germinal center reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, as an infection proceeds, memory B cells selected in the later stages of a germinal center response are found to have accumulated the highest numbers of immunoglobulin mutation events with superior affinity towards their targeted antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with chronic hepatitis B have antibodies against hepatitis B, but these antibodies are not enough to clear the infection of the affected liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Repurposing patient's own T-cells to recognize antigens on cancer cells caused dramatic improvement in three patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (the-scientist.com)
  • Researchers have kept cancer at bay in three patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia by genetically engineering the patients' own T-cells to recognize leukemia cell antigens, then kill the cancer cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the past, the researchers had even developed a technique for getting T-cells to recognize antigens in CLL, but in all those cases, "responses have been limited and not overly impressive," Porter said, namely because the T-cells never proliferated and didn't stick around long enough to make a lasting impact. (the-scientist.com)
  • Not all cancers have convenient or acceptable target antigens such as CD-19, which is largely restricted to a small population of cells in the body. (the-scientist.com)
  • 1 - 3 Because the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect is conventionally achieved through T-cell-mediated alloreactions directed against histocompatibility antigens displayed on recipient leukemia cells, in the haploidentical transplantation setting the need for extensive T-cell depletion might have been expected to result in a weak or no GvL effect. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Indeed, homeostatic proliferation of T cells can markedly enhance their reactivity to foreign antigens and recent work has shown this may be a therapeutic benefit in cancer immunotherapy ( 23 - 25 ). (rupress.org)
  • Dendritic cells are responsible for the detection of pathogenic antigens which are used to activate T cells and B cells. (innerbody.com)
  • Like T cells, NK cells have many qualities characteristic of the adaptive immune system, including the production of "memory" cells that persist following encounter with antigens and the ability to create a secondary recall response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the pathogen, alongside non-antigen specific costimulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • KIRs
  • Initial expression of KIRs on NK cells is stochastic, but there is an educational process that NK cells undergo as they mature that alters the expression of KIRs to maximize the balance between effective defense and self-tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we show that cells expressing MHC class I to levels well below half of the host level are tolerated in an in vivo assay in mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • undergo
  • Here we show that mouse NK cells undergo homeostatic proliferation when transferred into NK-deficient Rag −/− γC −/− hosts. (rupress.org)
  • Using cell sorting, we demonstrate that mature (Mac-1 hi ) NK cells undergo homeostatic proliferation in an NK-deficient environment, yet immature (Mac-1 lo ) NK cells also proliferate in such hosts. (rupress.org)
  • Recent data indicate that Vα14i NK-T cells, like conventional T cells undergo homeostatic proliferation ( 26 ). (rupress.org)
  • Recent reports suggest that B cells also undergo homeostatic proliferation in B cell-deficient hosts ( 29 ), although this may be a property of a subset of B cells ( 30 ). (rupress.org)
  • Conversely, during the course of a germinal center reaction, low affinity or potentially auto-reactive germinal center B cell clones, or those that have gained non-functional mutations are out-competed by higher affinity clones and eventually undergo cellular apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside these intestinal cells, the parasites undergo sexual development and reproduction, producing millions of thick-walled, zygote-containing cysts known as oocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for a cell to become cancerous it must undergo a significant number of alterations to its DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • The exact phenotype of these cells is unknown, although several different cell types have been identified, such as various immune lineages, mesenchymal stem cells, and placental-derived cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at UCLA have taken another step closer towards a potential cure for AIDS by engineering stem cells that actively seek out HIV and kill the infected cells in a body. (medindia.net)
  • They then placed the engineered stem cells into human thymus tissue that had been implanted in mice, allowing them to study the reaction in a living organism. (medindia.net)
  • The engineered stem cells developed into a large population of mature, multi-functional HIV-specific CD8 cells that could specifically target cells containing HIV proteins. (medindia.net)
  • In this current study, the researchers similarly engineered human blood stem cells and found that they can form mature T cells that can attack HIV in tissues where the virus resides and replicates. (medindia.net)
  • To create T cells able to fight HIV, scientists genetically engineered not T cells themselves but stem cells that produce both T cells and other blood cells. (statnews.com)
  • The genetic engineering gave the "hematopoietic stem cells" and all of their descendants an HIV-specific CAR: one part of the CAR (called CD4) hunts down and binds the AIDS-causing virus, while an additional surface molecule (called C46) interferes with HIV's ability to enter a T cell. (statnews.com)
  • Engineered stem cells "would initially be an expensive approach, but would hopefully save the necessity and expense of being on antiretroviral therapy for a lifetime," Kitchen said. (statnews.com)
  • Creating CAR stem cells, rather than CAR-T's, might get around that: engineered stem cells would produce "an endless supply of engineered T cells that continuously attack HIV," Kitchen said, much like an army with an infinite number of replacement soldiers. (statnews.com)
  • Certainly in the prevention of metastases through the elimination of circulating cancer stem cells with a high metastatic potential, NK cells are recognized as main immune effector cells ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Red bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue containing many stem cells that produce blood cells. (innerbody.com)
  • Leukocytes can be further broken down into 2 groups based upon the type of stem cells that produces them: myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells. (innerbody.com)
  • Myeloid stem cells produce monocytes and the granular leukocytes-eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. (innerbody.com)
  • Lymphoid stem cells produce T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. (innerbody.com)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes Mesenchymal Precursor Cells (MPCs) and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been shown to produce inflammatory cytokines and orchestrate tissue inflammation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusions: iNKT cells play a protective role against post-MI LV remodeling and failure through the enhanced expression of cardioprotective cytokines such as IL-10. (biomedsearch.com)
  • NK cells contribute to tumour surveillance, inhibition of growth and dissemination by cytotoxicity, secretion of cytokines and interaction with immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Before reinfusion, lymphodepletion of the recipient is required to eliminate regulatory T cells as well as unmodified, endogenous lymphocytes that compete with the transferred cells for homeostatic cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Once viruses get in neurons they can persist for the hosts lifetime and can influence the factors that disturb the function of neurons and the homeostasis of the nervous system, leading to nervous system diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • CD81 cross-linking by monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for CD81 or by immobilized E2 have been shown to result in costimulatory signals for human T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Within germinal centers, B cells proliferate and mutate the genetic region coding for their surface antibody (also known as immunoglobulin). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the fact that all the accumulation of cells of a single clone population express many of the one same type of antibody and that these memory B cells survive for long periods of time in a body underscores their functional significance during vaccination and the administration of booster shots. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Microchimerism is the presence of a small number of cells that originate from another individual and are therefore genetically distinct from the cells of the host individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxicity
  • In this study, we show that CD81 cross-linking via immobilized E2 or mAbs specific for CD81 inhibits not only non major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells but also interferon (IFN)-γ production by NK cells after exposure to interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15, or CD16 cross-linking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mature NK cells
  • We find that mature NK cells survive but do not proliferate in hosts which possess an endogenous NK pool. (rupress.org)
  • Mature NK cells are typically thought to be a terminally differentiated population, unable to be maintained by self renewal ( 1 , 2 , 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • Here we focus on homeostasis of mature NK cells and report that it is a highly dynamic process. (rupress.org)
  • We find that mature NK cells proliferate rapidly in an NK-deficient environment, arguing that NK cells are capable of responding to "space" by homeostatic proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • cytotoxic T cel
  • Moreover, as solid tumors have a propensity to particularly down-regulate MHC-I, NK cells provide a failsafe mechanism in these circumstances where cytotoxic T cells, which depend on MHC-I for tumor recognition and elimination, are debilitated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also, there is presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the fetus that inhibit maternal cytotoxic T cells by inhibiting the response to interleukin 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • We believe that this is the first step in developing a more aggressive approach in correcting the defects in the human T cell responses that allow HIV to persist in infected people," Kitchen said. (medindia.net)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in early immune responses against certain viruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). (rupress.org)
  • As NK cells in cancer patients are highly dysfunctional and reduced in number, adoptive transfer of large numbers of cytolytic NK cells and their potential to induce relevant antitumor responses are widely explored in cancer immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • NAC enhanced the AbN (p = 0.001) and % (p = 0.006) of NK cells in patients with good pathological responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The basic premise of the eu-FEDS hypothesis is that both soluble and cell surface associated glycoproteins, present in the reproductive system and expressed on gametes, suppress any potential immune responses, and inhibit rejection of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • persistence
  • Anti-viral T cells are thought to regulate whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infections result in viral control, asymptomatic persistence, or severe disease, though the reasons for these different outcomes remain unclear. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here the roles of NK cells in regulating T cell-dependent viral persistence and immunopathology were examined in mice infected with LCMV, an established model for HIV and HCV infections in humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At high virus dose NK cells prevented fatal pathology while enabling T-cell exhaustion and viral persistence, but at a medium dose NK cells paradoxically facilitated lethal T cell-mediated pathology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Under these high dose conditions, therefore, the presence of NK cells promoted persistence and prevented mortality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Little is known about how this virus is able to persist or whether this persistence might be because of its ability to alter the early innate immune response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • immature
  • These immature populations generally differentiate into T cells when placed in a thymic environment and NK cells when placed into other environments, suggesting that the environment in which the cells develop influences their ultimate fate. (rupress.org)
  • A group of Netherton patients have been demonstrated to have altered immunoglobulin levels (typically high IgE and low to normal IgG) and immature natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsets
  • Human NK cells are generally categorized by their level of CD56 and CD16 expression into two subsets: CD56 bright CD16 dim and CD56 dim CD16 bright NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • A CD4 and CD8 defect was observed involving naive, terminally differentiated, memory and competent cells and above limits values for activated subsets. (haematologica.org)
  • But the most profound impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease was on B-cell subsets, especially on the memory B population. (haematologica.org)
  • lysis
  • While direct NK cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells may contribute to anti-viral defense during some virus infections, especially murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infections in mice and perhaps HIV in humans 4 - 5 , NK cells have also been suspected as having immunoregulatory functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we examined the role of UL18 in NK cell recognition and lysis using fibroblasts infected with either wild-type or UL18 knockout CMV virus, and by using cell lines transfected with the UL18 gene. (rupress.org)
  • viral
  • The fusion of the cells is apparently caused by viral fusion proteins from endosymbiotic endogenous retrovirus (ERV). (wikipedia.org)
  • An immunoevasive action was the initial normal behavior of the viral protein, in order to avail for the virus to spread to other cells by simply merging them with the infected one. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are then either pulsed with an antigen or tumor lysate or transfected with a viral vector, causing them to display the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an infected cell this enzyme produces mRNA transcripts for the synthesis of viral proteins and produces copies of the rotavirus genome RNA segments for newly produced virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • When a member of the cat family is infected with T. gondii (e.g. by consuming an infected mouse carrying the parasite's tissue cysts), the parasite survives passage through the stomach, eventually infecting epithelial cells of the cat's small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected epithelial cells eventually rupture and release oocysts into the intestinal lumen, whereupon they are shed in the cat's feces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • The presence of a proper bone marrow microenvironment is thought to be necessary for proper NK function, since mice treated with agents that affect the bone marrow, such as 89 Sr (( 13 )) or estradiol (( 14 )), are unable to fully support the maturation of NK cells. (rupress.org)
  • The researchers did note a potential weakness with the study: Human immune cells reconstituted at a lower level in the humanized mice than they would in humans, and as a result, the mice's immune systems were mostly, though not completely, reconstructed. (medindia.net)
  • The Activation of Natural Killer T Cells Ameliorates Post-Infarct Cardiac Remodeling and Failure in Mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The administration of αGC into iNKT cell-deficient Jα18(-/-) mice had no such effects, suggesting that αGC was a specific activator of iNKT cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lung pathology was absent in NK cell-depleted mice, which uniformly survived medium dose challenge ( Fig. 1c , Bottom ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Surprisingly, NK survival is also compromised after transfer of cells into IL-15Rα −/− mice, implying that IL-15 responsiveness by bystander cells is critical for NK maintenance. (rupress.org)
  • pathways
  • In addition to this, the field studies the use of viruses to trace neuroanatomical pathways, for gene therapy, and to eliminate detrimental populations of neural cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • In the United States alone, there are over 6 million patients suffering from chronic back pain that has persisted for three months or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • But this time, the group also added a gene for a more powerful stimulatory factor which activates T-cells and fuels their replication in the body. (the-scientist.com)
  • maternal
  • Maternal immune cells are also found in the offspring yielding in maternal→fetal microchimerism, though this phenomenon is about half as frequent as the former. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, microchimeric cells of maternal origin may be involved in the pathogenesis of a group of autoimmune diseases found in children, i.e. juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (one example would be juvenile dermatomyositis). (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Researchers have been trying to get T-cells to recognize and kill ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and mesothelioma (the asbestos-caused form of lung cancer). (the-scientist.com)
  • cancers
  • But if the therapy does proves successful long-term, the technique could also be developed for other cancers, which express other cell surface markers, said Renier Brentjens , a medical oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York who was not involved in the study. (the-scientist.com)
  • The purpose of our study was to characterise NK cells in women with large (≥3 cm) and locally advanced (T3-4, N1-2, M0) breast cancers (LLABCs) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery, and to ascertain their possible contribution to a pathological complete response (pCR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Randomized controlled studies in different cancers resulting in significant increase in survival and disease free period have been reported and its efficacy is enhanced by 20-30% when cell-based immunotherapy is combined with conventional treatment methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adoptive cell transfer has been tested on lung and other cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • interferon
  • Topical immunotherapy utilizes an immune enhancement cream (imiquimod) which produces interferon, causing the recipient's killer T cells to destroy warts, actinic keratoses, basal cell cancer, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, squamous cell cancer, cutaneous lymphoma, and superficial malignant melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Early stages of NK cell development are generally thought to occur in the bone marrow, where NK cells make up ∼2-4% of the cells present. (rupress.org)
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a complication that can occur after a stem cell or bone marrow transplant in which the newly transplanted donor cells attack the transplant recipient's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthopedic diseases of the spine - Cells are locally administered to potentially repair intervertebral discs or generate new bone Oncology - Improving outcomes of bone marrow transplantation in patients with cancer or genetic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • NK cells from carriers of the *h/*y + B*57 genotype have higher NK cell functional potential and inhibit HIV replication in autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (iCD4) more potently than those from carriers of non-protective genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)