• Africa
  • Morocco - sovereign country located in western North Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • 70.5 KB) Moroccousafta a site about the Morocco/US Free Trade Agreement Surveys and Studies Human Rights Watch on Morocco "Genetic structure of north-west Africa" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • To the north, the Sahara skirts the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica and the Maghreb, the Sahara borders the Mediterranean forest, woodland, and scrub eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers and cool and rainy winters. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mauritania thus became part of French West Africa in 1904, but colonial control was mostly limited to the coast and the Saharan trade routes, and there were territories nominally within French West Africa which were not reached by European control as late as 1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Islam became so prominent in North and West Africa, many of the trade routes and caravan networks were controlled by Muslim nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Western Sahara, the last colony in Africa, is still awaiting for the UN to fulfil its "mandate to organise a referendum of the Saharawis to determine the future of their land and resources", MUA considered. (awsa.org.au)
  • The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the starting point of the scramble for Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression (1873-96), Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, and after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later in the midst of Cold War tensions, the Arabic-speaking countries of Western Asia and Northern Africa saw the rise of pan-Arabism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algeria
  • Morocco has international borders with Algeria to the east, Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with two small Spanish autonomous cities, Ceuta and Melilla), and a disputed border with Mauritania to the south. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new negotiations will include talks regarding European investment, agriculture, fisheries, and the accession of Algeria to the World Trade Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this image made from video, a group of people believed to be hostages kneel in the sand with their hands in the air at an unknown location in Algeria. (yahoo.com)
  • ALGIERS, Algeria (AP) -- The death toll from the terrorist siege at a natural gas plant in the Sahara climbed past 80 on Sunday as Algerian forces searching the refinery for explosives found dozens more bodies, many so badly disfigured it was unclear whether they were hostages or militants, a security official said. (yahoo.com)
  • Algeria said after Saturday's assault by government forces that at least 32 extremists and 23 hostages were killed. (yahoo.com)
  • Algeria for 30 years has backed the Polisario Front, the organisation battling for self-determination for Western Sahara, the former Spanish colony seized by Morocco. (investorintel.com)
  • Well, it seems from news reports that, to quote one, there is now occurring "an outburst of hostile rhetoric between Morocco and Algeria (reflecting) a historic animosity rooted in irreconcilable differences" over Western Sahara. (investorintel.com)
  • And neighbouring Algeria has now invited Indian companies for undertaking a feasibility study for cooperation in its fertilizer sector. (investorintel.com)
  • The Romans interacted with and later conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, and the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algerian
  • This according to information released by the Algerian Trade Ministry's Economic Control and Fraud Squad. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algerian special forces stormed the plant on Saturday to end the four-day siege, moving in to thwart what government officials said was a plot by the Islamic extremists to blow up the complex and kill all their captives with mines sown throughout the site. (yahoo.com)
  • Now, of course, people will ask questions about the Algerian response to these events, but I would just say that the responsibility for these deaths lies squarely with the terrorists who launched a vicious and cowardly attack," British Prime Minister David Cameron said. (yahoo.com)
  • It was unclear whether anyone was rescued in the final assault on the complex, which is run by the Algerian state oil company along with BP and Norway's Statoil. (yahoo.com)
  • Two private Algerian TV stations and an online news site said security forces scouring the plant found five militants hiding out and learned that three others had fled. (yahoo.com)
  • In general, the area was tension-filled, with frequent clashes between the French and the Algerian people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promises of emancipation excited the Algerian people, as they would finally be able to form a sovereign nation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposal was reportedly made by a Algerian trade delegation visiting New Delhi. (investorintel.com)
  • protests
  • The international reactions to the Libyan Civil War were the responses to the series of protests and military confrontations occurring in Libya against the government of Libya and its de facto head of state Muammar Gaddafi. (wikipedia.org)
  • that poll was seen as the monarchy's response to the "Arab Spring" protests which had by then spilled over into Morocco. (investorintel.com)
  • The first clear government response to the protests was a proposal for a new education fund and a cabinet shuffle which replaced Minister of Education Joaquín Lavín and was seen as not fundamentally addressing student movement concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many newspapers and analysts have traced the protests back to the 2006 Penguin Revolution that occurred during the government of Michelle Bachelet , some claiming that these are the same secondary students who headed the 2006 movement that when in university are heading the 2011 student protests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mauritania
  • The company holds production and development operations offshore Ghana, in addition to discoveries and further exploration operations offshore Mauritania and Senegal, and exploration licenses offshore Sao Tome and Principe, Morocco and Western Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mauritania takes its name from the ancient Berber kingdom and later Roman province of Mauretania, and thus ultimately from the Mauri people, even though the respective territories do not overlap, historical Mauritania being considerably further north than modern Mauritania. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the 7th and 8th centuries did not reach as far south, and Islam came to Mauritania only gradually, from about the 11th century, in the context of the wider Islamization of the Sudan and medieval Arab slave trade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mauritania, lying next to the Atlantic coast at the western edge of the desert, received and assimilated into its complex society many waves of these migrants and conquerors. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the 15th to the 19th century, European contact with Mauritania was dominated by the trade for gum arabic. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertiliser
  • He said the rock from Morocco is used to make New Zealand's predominant fertiliser superphosphate, which results in high levels of run-off with resulting pollution to our waterways and can also be detrimental to soil health over the long term. (rockphosphate.co.nz)
  • Chatham Rock Phosphate, a publicly listed company, was granted a mining permit in 2013 to develop New Zealand's only significant source of environmentally friendly pastoral phosphate fertiliser and is now preparing for a revised environmental consent application. (rockphosphate.co.nz)
  • As the Margiris super trawler arrives in Australian amid controversy, another ship, the bulk carrier, Maple Crystal is due at Lascelles wharf in North Shore Geelong on Wednesday 5 September, bringing a stolen cargo of phosphate rock from Western Sahara for the Australian Fertiliser company, Incitec Pivot (IPL). (awsa.org.au)
  • 15th
  • From the 8th through the 15th century, black kingdoms of the western Sudan, such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, brought their political culture from the south. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of what scholars know of the Trans-Saharan trade routes comes from the historical writings of Muslim scholars such as Ibn Battuta and Leo Africanus who both crossed the Sahara Desert in the 14th and 15th centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 10th-15th centuries the major empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay influenced many of the trade practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Portuguese established the first firm post-Middle Ages European settlements, trade posts, permanent fortifications and ports of call along the coast of the African continent, from the beginning of the Age of Discovery during the 15th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early 15th century, a new power had arisen in western Anatolia, the Ottoman emirs, linguistically Turkic and religiously Islamic, who in 1453 captured the Christian Byzantine capital of Constantinople and made themselves sultans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maghreb
  • According to the botanical criteria of Frank White and geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate portion of the Maghreb and Iberia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sudan
  • In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs (specifically, people of Nilotic descent). (wikipedia.org)
  • American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • clashes
  • On August 19, 2009 Wadud offered sympathy in a message following July clashes with security forces which left many people dead in Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clashes in western Iraq on 30 December 2013 were preliminary to the Sunni pan-Islamist ISIL uprising. (wikipedia.org)
  • officials
  • In progressing plans to submit a new application we are working with government officials to seek improvement in the permitting process and iwi, academic, industry and central government input to ensure New Zealand can benefit from an environmentally superior phosphate source. (rockphosphate.co.nz)
  • cargo
  • The 55,000 tonne cargo had been illegally exported from occupied Western Sahara in April for delivery to the New Zealand fertilizer company Ballance Agri-Nutrients Limited. (awsa.org.au)
  • Another vessel of similar cargo was arrested in Panama, it was going to Canada for the company Agrium. (awsa.org.au)
  • Libya
  • The legitimate aspirations and demands of the people for reform must be addressed through open and meaningful Libya-led dialogue. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have heard threats, we hear people saying you should do this, you should do that, but in the end the EU will do what is right," Ashton replied concerning threats Libya delivered to the rotating Hungarian presidency of the EU, stating that Tripoli would end co-operation on blocking irregular immigration into the EU if Brussels did not side with Gaddafi. (wikipedia.org)
  • territory
  • Since 2006 the organisation has worked to prevent the European Union entering agreements with Morocco covering the territory of Western Sahara, most importantly its Fisheries Partnership Agreements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kosmos began a controversial oil drilling project in the Cap Boujdour area in 2014 off the coast of disputed territory of Western Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have worked in close partnership with Morocco - as the de facto administering power of the territory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Court Justice declared Morocco has no claim to this territory and no country - including Australia - recognises its claim. (awsa.org.au)
  • Western Sahara is a non-self-governing territory in the language of the United Nations. (awsa.org.au)
  • 1991
  • A 1991 ceasefire split the region in two between what Morocco calls its southern provinces and an area controlled by Polisario. (reuters.com)
  • settlements
  • Spanish prehistory extends to the pre-Roman Iron Age cultures that controlled most of Iberia: those of the Iberians, Celtiberians, Tartessians, Lusitanians, and Vascones and trading settlements of Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks on the Mediterranean coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seafaring Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • diplomatic
  • Re: A protestletterconcerning the visit of the diplomatic delegations to someoccupiedterritories of Western Sahara. (wesatimes.com)
  • Virtually all Western countries cut off diplomatic relations with Gaddafi's government over an aerial bombing campaign in February and March, and a number of other countries led by Peru and Botswana did likewise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mali
  • The company was convinced that there was a substantial market in Mali and neighbouring states for phosphate rock. (investorintel.com)
  • While trade along the Trans-Sahara trade route was common in the 14th century, it was highly dependent on the powerful African Empires, such as the Mali Empire, Kingdom of Kongo, Benin Kingdom, Hausa City-states, Great Zimbabwe, Ethiopian Empire, Kilwa Sultanat, and the Ajuran Sultanate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1352-53, Ibn Battuta embarked on a pilgrimage from Morocco to the Mali empire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabic
  • it is still frequently used in the Arabic-speaking world as a term for black people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word Kufra comes from the Arabic word kafir, the Arabic term for non-Muslims (often translated as "infidels", literally "those who conceal [the truth]"), with reference to the Toubou people native to the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • caravan
  • Beginning slowly through contacts with Berber and Arab merchants engaged in the important caravan trades and rapidly advancing through the Almoravid conquests, Islamization did not take firm hold until the arrival of Yemeni Arabs in the 12th and 13th centuries and was not complete until several centuries later. (wikipedia.org)
  • ceasefire
  • As reported here on InvestorIntel last month, Great Quest Metals (TSX.V:GQ) has welcomed the recent ceasefire agreement between the Malian government and the Tuareg rebels. (investorintel.com)
  • occupation
  • The organisation believes that the occupation of Western Sahara will continue as long as Morocco profits from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • As French occupation continued, French settlers began to colonize the region, and demanded privileges for ruling the land on behalf of the French government. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are optimistic this second recourse to applying the law to bring an end to the blatant theft of a resource belonging to a people under occupation will demonstrate our resolve," Polisario chief negotiator Mohamed Khadad said. (reuters.com)
  • Ghana
  • Kosmos was the focus of a documentary Big Men that followed the company as it worked to establish the Jubilee oil field in Ghana. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company and its operations in Ghana, around the time of the Jubilee discovery and work to develop the field, was the focus of Rachel Boynton's 2013 documentary-film Big Men. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • At any rate environmental criticism is expected to be muted somewhat as the slump makes people realize just how important the phosphate industry is to their local economy. (csmonitor.com)
  • Its spaces and groups do a request for all relations of research: important people, perspectives for something and news settings, items for customers, and master for Web skills, practical time and many time writers. (qualitysavers.to)
  • grounds
  • Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance as "the act by which a (natural or legal) person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural resources
  • They complained that they were being treated as second-class citizens in their own country, while Morocco exploited their natural resources for its profit. (awsa.org.au)
  • Sid Ahmed Lamjayed is the president of the CSPRON The committee to support the peace settlement and to protect the natural resources in Western Sahara. (awsa.org.au)
  • In a meeting with Equipe Media Mohamed Jaaim, general secretary of CSPRON, said: "I denounce the systematic plundering of natural resources in Western Sahara by Morocco and its accomplices in particular the phosphate, the indispensable element in the global agriculture. (awsa.org.au)
  • site
  • Care2 is the largest and most trusted information and action site for people who care to make a difference in their lives and the world. (care2.com)
  • make
  • sectarian people will well make medical in your download Manifesting Minds: A Review of Psychedelics in Science, Medicine, Sex, and of the differences you optimize sent. (cdaccess.com)
  • made
  • University students are represented by CONFECH, the Confederation of Chilean Student Federations , a national body made up of student governments at Chilean universities and led by Camila Vallejo of the University of Chile and Giorgio Jackson of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile . (wikipedia.org)
  • countries
  • Many members of the international community, including the United Nations, the Arab League, and the African Union, explicitly recognized the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council as Libya's legitimate representative, with many of those countries explicitly describing it as the legal interim government of the country due to the perceived loss of legitimacy on the part of Gaddafi's regime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black people" is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other given populations. (wikipedia.org)