• enzyme
  • This entry covers proteins that are closely related to the pectolytic enzyme, pectin lyase, which act as virulence factors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Pectin lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Eliminative cleavage of (1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonan methyl ester to give oligosaccharides with 4-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha-D-galact-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pectin methyl-esterases (PMEs) remove methyl groups arising from the enzyme which polymerizes pectins (methyl esterified α- (1-4) D-galacturonic acid polymer) resulting in a de-esterified pectin polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15), also known as pectin depolymerase, PG, pectolase, pectin hydrolase, and poly-alpha-1,4-galacturonide glycanohydrolase, is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds between galacturonic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • Pectinesterase catalyses the de-esterification of methyl-esterified D-galactosiduronic acid units in pectic compounds yielding substrates for depolymerising enzymes, particularly acidic pectins and methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • However, since WAKs are also required for cell growth by binding to long pectin polymers for plant development and also pectin fragments for wounding response, no means has been found as to how WAKs differentiates between the two types of pectins to either initiate cell elongation or protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • shorten
  • Pectin seems to shorten bouts of diarrhea and vomiting and lessen the need for replacement fluids in children aged 5-12 months from developing nations who experience ongoing diarrhea. (webmd.com)
  • residues
  • In-vitro binding between WAKs and pectin is facilitated by charged oxygen groups on pure pectin fragments and charged residues on the ECM of WAKs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggestion that charge is responsible for the preferable binding of WAKs to de-esterified pectins (negatively charged) was shown in a mutation in cationic residues in a WAK1 gene to neutral residues which resulted to the loss of binding properties to the de-esterified pectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This role of charge in binding is further proved through a substitution of arginine residues for glutamine and lysine for threonines within the ECM that showing a reduced binding to the de-esterified pectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Similarly, phytopathogens use PGs as a means to weaken the pectin network, so that digestive enzymes can be excreted into the plant host to acquire nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • This highly stable structure, thanks to numerous hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds between strands, is a common characteristic of enzymes involved in the degradation of pectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • The plant carbohydrate pectin is used as a gelling and thickening agent in the manufacture of food products like jams and jellies. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Prime
  • Dubbed Grindsted Pectin Prime 541 - Grindsted is the name of the town where Danisco was founded in 1924 - the pectin can be used in reduced sugar fruit spreads of between 30 and 45º Brix, a unit of measurement used by the food industry for sugar. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Capitalizing on the low-sugar trend, DuPont Nutrition & Health has developed GRINDSTED® Pectin PRIME 541, a new product that will allow food manufacturers to formulate new appealing reduced sugar fruit spreads recipes faster than ever and without processing hurdles. (prweb.com)
  • GRINDSTED® Pectin PRIME 541 is designed to increase flexibility: it doesn't require calcium addition, has an improved tolerance to heat and can work in a wide range of fruit types, sugar levels and fruit levels. (prweb.com)
  • GRINDSTED® Pectin PRIME 541 provides maximum functional performance based on sustainable raw materials and processes. (prweb.com)
  • pathogen
  • The increase of PME activity in response to pathogen treatment was concomitant with a decrease in pectin methylesterification. (uniprot.org)
  • The role of WAKs in cell walls as pectin receptors is vital to a variety of functions involved with cell differentiation, form and host-pathogen relations. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a model was proposed to demonstrate the preference of WAKs for de-esterified pectins and a possible explanation for initiating pathogen response rather than growth response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since WAKs is bound more loosely in esterified pectins, more was present to bind oligogalacturonic acids (in this mutant) thereby inducing a pathogen stress response rather than a growth response. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • On the other hand, pectins are an abundant group of complex carbohydrates present in the primary cell wall that play roles in cell growth and development, protection, plant structure and water holding capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pectins are rich in galacturonic acids (OGs) and present in the middle lamellae in plant tissues where they provide strength, flexibility and adhesion between plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragmentation of pectins (oligogalacturonic acid) during wounding or pathogenic attack results in a plant stress response, and WAKs play a role in the mediation of that response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pectin is one of the main components of the plant cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • jelly
  • Remove the muslin bag and squeeze the pulp through a jelly bag to extract all of the pectin. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Powder
  • If you make a lot of jam at your house, you probably go through a lot of pectin, whether it come as a powder in a little box or in a mylar pouch as a liquid. (thesurvivalmom.com)
  • fruit
  • 20. A dietetic food or drug comestible other than fruit spreads, comprised of said comestible and the sugar beet pectin of claim as a low caloric bulking agent. (google.es)
  • 21. A dietetic food drug comestible other than fruit spreads, comprising of a dairy or non-dairy product and the sugar beet pectin of claim as a fat-sparing agent. (google.es)
  • 22. A food or drug comestible, other than fruit spreads, comprised of said comestible the sugar beet pectin of claim as a soluble fiber. (google.es)
  • The improved formulation and process flexibility makes it possible, in a minimum amount of time, to develop and produce reduced sugar fruit spreads with outstanding quality, and at the same time reduce the number of pectin SKU's needed. (prweb.com)
  • Depolymerization of pectin is largely involved in the later stages of fruit ripening, especially as the fruit becomes overripe. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • PECTINS AND AMIDATED PECTINS Explanation This substance was evaluated for acceptable daily intake for man (ADI) by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1973 (see Annex, Ref. 33). (inchem.org)
  • Sugar beet pectins are provided, which are characterized by unique properties which render them particularly useful in the preparation of food or drug comestibles. (google.es)
  • By incorporating the sugar beet pectins into food or drug products, improved properties, including physicochemical, rheological and nutritional. (google.es)
  • accordingly, pectin and MCP are considered GRAS by the US Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • Since April 2004, pectin has not been permitted as an anti-diarrhea agent in over-the-counter (OTC) products. (webmd.com)
  • cholesterol
  • People use pectin for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, and to prevent colon cancer and prostate cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Taking pectin by mouth seems to lower cholesterol. (webmd.com)
  • At one time they have been used as plasma extenders but large intravenous doses have led to pectin deposition in the kidney, liver and lung with consequential degenerative changes (Merck Index, 1968) - pectin has been shown to lower blood cholesterol in man (Keys et al. (inchem.org)
  • Pectin had no effect on body weight or plasma cholesterol level unless cholesterol was given in the diet. (inchem.org)
  • 1966). Chicken fed cholesterol in the diet excrete more cholesterol if pectin is also added. (inchem.org)
  • Pectin has no effect on endogenous plasma cholesterol or may raise the level (Fisher et al. (inchem.org)
  • highly
  • These areas are highly concentrated in pectin. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Pectinesterase is thought to be secreted to the apoplasm with highly methylated pectin although at some point along this secretory pathway the N-terminal pro-peptide is cleaved off. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • A dominant WAKs allele that requires a pectin binding domain and kinase activity was shown to induce a stress response, however, this allele was suppressed with a null allele of pectin methyl-esterase (pme) which prevented the removal of the methyl groups that polymerize pectin to a de-esterified polymer hence resulting in an esterified pectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Mating of the 2% non-amidated pectin group to produce the F 2b litter resulted in only five females becoming pregnant, two died during pregnancy and none of the pups survived to day 21. (inchem.org)
  • growth
  • Growth was slightly decreased at the 15% level and this finding was also noted in a range finding test using 20% pectin in the diet. (inchem.org)
  • Pectin produced diarrhoea and growth was retarded at both dietary levels. (inchem.org)
  • made
  • The diets were made isocaloric by supplementing the alphacel with dextrose assuming a caloric equivalent for pectin of 0.6187 cal/g. (inchem.org)
  • approximately
  • Long-term studies Groups of 20 male weanling Wistar rats were fed diets of purina laboratory meal to which was added low molecular pectin (approximately 18% amidated) or non-amidated pectin at 10% of the diet. (inchem.org)