• reaction
  • The presence of Au in doped Ce-Zr-Co oxide catalyst decreases the temperature necessary to reduce the cobalt and the cerium loaded in the catalyst and favors a different reaction pathway, improving the acetaldehyde route by ethanol dehydrogenation, instead of the ethylene route by ethanol dehydration or methane re-adsorption, thus increasing the catalytic activity and selectivity into hydrogen. (mdpi.com)
  • However, different parallel reaction paths exist, such as dehydration into ethylene, dehydrogenation into acetaldehyde, condensation to acetone and cracking reactions [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). (genome.jp)
  • In enzymology, a deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-deoxy-D-ribose 5-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + acetaldehyde Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, 2-deoxy-D-ribose 5-phosphate, and two products, D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALDH2
  • Alcohol consumption increases blood and salivary acetaldehyde levels, especially in individuals with ALDH2 polymorphisms, which are highly associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinomas in the upper aerodigestive tract. (mdpi.com)
  • Since ALDH2 assembles and functions as a tetramer and requires all four of its components to be active in order to metabolize acetaldehyde, heterozygotes have very little ALDH2 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • The acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway enzymes for glycerolipid biosynthesis are present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (genome.jp)
  • Contribution of different pathways to the supply of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine to mitochondrial membranes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (genome.jp)
  • It was Pasteur who discovered that yeast converted sugars in the must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, though the exact mechanisms of how the yeast would accomplish this task was not discovered till the 20th century with the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The yeast accomplishes this by utilizing glucose through a series of metabolic pathways that, in the presence of oxygen, produces not only large amounts of energy for the cell but also many different intermediates that the cell needs to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Utilized in the bacterial degradation of toxic aromatic compounds, the enzyme's crystal structure indicates that intermediates are shuttled directly between active sites through a hydrophobic intermediary channel, providing an unreactive environment in which to move the reactive acetaldehyde intermediate from the aldolase active site to the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratases of Geobacter metallireducens and Syntrophus aciditrophicus: Evidence for a common benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway in facultative and strict anaerobes. (genome.jp)
  • biosynthesis
  • Pathways for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria. (genome.jp)
  • The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. (genome.jp)
  • reactive
  • Acetaldehyde is a highly reactive compound that causes various forms of damage to DNA, including DNA adducts, single- and/or double-strand breaks (DSBs), point mutations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and DNA-DNA cross-links. (mdpi.com)
  • catalytic
  • As discovered by site-directed mutagenesis , glutamate -268 is a key component of liver acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and is also critical to catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • About 50% of people of Northeast Asian descent have a dominant mutation in their acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene , making this enzyme less effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of the 4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate aldolase gene and operon structure of the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway genes in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. (genome.jp)
  • metabolites
  • The purpose of this FOA is to provide support for integrated, innovative research on the novel and unconventional contributions of ethanol metabolizing pathways, their metabolites, cofactors, and interactions with synergizing biological pathways in the development of alcohol- induced diseases and end organ injuries. (nih.gov)
  • alcoholic
  • Based on extensive epidemiological evidence, the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined acetaldehyde associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages as a "group 1 carcinogen" (definite carcinogen) for the esophagus and/or head and neck. (mdpi.com)
  • however, signaling pathways that perpetuate inflammation in alcoholic liver disease are only partially understood. (umassmed.edu)
  • cancers
  • Individuals with deficient acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity are far less likely to become alcoholics , but seem to be at a greater risk of liver damage, alcohol-induced asthma, and contracting cancers of the oro-pharynx and esophagus due to acetaldehyde overexposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Experiments were performed in a fluoroplastic bag containing α-pinene or limonene as terpenes, ozone and acetaldehyde or formaldehyde as coexistent CCs adjusted to predetermined concentrations. (mdpi.com)
  • individuals
  • The metabolized acetaldehyde in the blood, which is six times higher than in individuals without the mutation, has shown to be a carcinogen in lab animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased exposure to acetaldehyde in individuals with the catalytically inactive form may also confer greater susceptibility to many types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)