• macrophages
  • The mannose receptor (Cluster of Differentiation 206, CD206) is a C-type lectin primarily present on the surface of macrophages and immature dendritic cells, but is also expressed on the surface of skin cells such as human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through this domain, the mannose receptor internalises collagen in macrophages and liver sinusoidal cells, independent of the lectin activity of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These patterns include eat-me signals on the apoptotic cells, loss of don't-eat-me signals on viable cells and come-get-me signals (also find-me signals)) secreted by the apoptotic cells in order to attract phagocytes (mostly macrophages and immature dendritic cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The signaling complex reacts with TRAF6 which leads to TAK1 activation and consequently the induction of inflammatory cytokines.The TRIF-dependent pathway is induced by macrophages and DCs after TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • PAMP-triggered immunity is a plant defense reaction in which pathogens are recognized through conserved molecular patterns like flg22, an epitope of bacterial flagellin, elf18, a component of bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu, bacterial peptidoglycans, and chitin, a typical component of the fungal cell wall. (frontiersin.org)
  • The 'danger' signals can be given off by invasive pathogens, or by an injury to a tissue, which can all be recognised by the host cells' receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • Here, we demonstrate the essential role of ModSP, a modular serine protease, in the activation of the Toll pathway by gram-positive bacteria and fungi. (epfl.ch)
  • Successful defense against virus infection relies on early detection by germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors and activation of cytokine and type I IFN genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Proper activation of innate immunity and full immune protection to the emerging infectious disease of West Nile virus has previously been shown to be dependent on viral recognition by the host RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein family. (jimmunol.org)
  • There are three pathways of activation, each of which leads to the formation of C3a and C3b, which is involved in antigen opsonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical pathway of complement activation is initiated when the C1 complex, made up of C1r and C1s serine proteases, recognizes the Fc region of IgM or IgG antibodies bound to a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alternative pathway of complement activation is typically always active at low levels in blood plasma through a process called tick-over, in which C3 spontaneously hydrolyzes into its active form, C3(H2O). (wikipedia.org)
  • IKKs' signaling pathway leads to the induction of the transcription factor NF-κB, while activation of MAPK cascades lead to the activation of another transcription factor AP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptors were first discovered in Drosophila and trigger the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and activation of other host defense programs that are necessary for both innate or adaptive immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of cell death, although the activation route of caspase-1 is varied, the downstream signalling pathway will converge to result in the pyroptotic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of the alternative complement pathway, the spontaneous activation of a complement cascade converts C3 to C3b, a component that can serve as an opsonin when bound to an antigen's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The ionotropic receptors (IRs) are implied in gustation and olfaction in Drosophila melanogaster and they are expanded in Z. nevadensis too with 137 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a central pathway downstream from many innate and adaptive immune receptors, the NF-κB signaling pathway is highly regulated by lysine 48 (K48), K63, and linear ubiquitination modifications that are required for the ultimate release of the p50/p65 NF-κB transcription factor to the nucleus where it can turn on the expression of proinflammatory genes ( Iwai and Tokunaga, 2009 ). (rupress.org)
  • phagocytic
  • As an example, annexin I is externalized in the same locations as phosphatidylserine and helps with clustering phagocytic phosphatidylserine receptors around the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytic cells do not have an Fc receptor for immunoglobulin M (IgM), making IgM ineffective in assisting phagocytosis alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • The Toll- dependent defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA). (sciencemag.org)
  • The Drosophila Toll receptor does not interact directly with microbial determinants, but is instead activated by a cleaved form of the cytokine-like molecule Spätzle. (epfl.ch)
  • Adaptive patterns of phenotypic plasticity in laboratory and field environments in Drosophila melanogaster . (sdbonline.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • Unlike most viruses that enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, most paramyxoviruses deliver their genome into the cytoplasm directly by fusion with the plasma membrane ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The mannose receptor recycles continuously between the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments in a clathrin-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Arabidopsis roots, the RALF- FER signal transduction pathways continues to control and moderate cell growth and hormone responses in the plasma membrane and root cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • FER could occupy parts of the microdomains found in the plasma membrane and perform with both the receptors and coreceptors to create signaling platforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • MAPK pathways have both a positive and negative regulation in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK pathways in plants are known to regulate cell growth, cell development, cell death, and cell responses to environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Other than the alternative pathway, which is constantly active, C3a formation is triggered by pathogenic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was suggested that microbial infection was the main evolutionary pressure for this pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytosis
  • When opsonins bind to their targets they boost the kinetics of phagocytosis by favoring interaction between the opsonin and cell surface receptors on immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After C3b has bound to the surface of an antigen, it can be recognized by phagocyte receptors that signal for phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mannose
  • These bound receptors then complex with Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs), which have proteolytic activity similar to the C1 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mannose receptor is the only member of the family in which this domain is functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibronectin type II repeat domain is conserved amongst all members of the mannose receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the similarities in mannose-binding between the mannose receptor and MBL, these differences suggest that mannose-binding by the mannose receptor evolved separately to that of other C-type lectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that the mannose receptor can exist in at least two different structural conformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • These findings demonstrate that high-fat feeding induces peripheral inflammation and weight gain in a RAGE-dependent manner, providing a foothold in the pathways that regulate diet-induced obesity and offering the potential for therapeutic intervention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Feronia is the receptor to RALF and was found to regulate the effect of RALF in the cell elongation in the Arabidopsis roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • crucial
  • IRAK4 is considered the "master IRAK" in the mammalian IRAK family because it is the only component in the IL-1/TLR signalling pathway that is absolutely crucial to its functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • FER also plays a role in regulating the elongation length of plant roots in Arabidopsis as well as regulating pathways involved with hormone responses such as auxin-promoted root hair growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • S100A12 and HMGB-1 both bind to receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a cell surface signaling receptor implicated in the pathology of inflammation, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease ( 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • signals
  • Don't-eat-me signals (also SAMPs = self-associated molecular patterns) are present on all host viable cells and actively protect the cells from engulfment. (wikipedia.org)