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  • macrophages
  • The mannose receptor (Cluster of Differentiation 206, CD206) is a C-type lectin primarily present on the surface of macrophages and immature dendritic cells, but is also expressed on the surface of skin cells such as human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through this domain, the mannose receptor internalises collagen in macrophages and liver sinusoidal cells, independent of the lectin activity of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These patterns include eat-me signals on the apoptotic cells, loss of don't-eat-me signals on viable cells and come-get-me signals (also find-me signals)) secreted by the apoptotic cells in order to attract phagocytes (mostly macrophages and immature dendritic cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The signaling complex reacts with TRAF6 which leads to TAK1 activation and consequently the induction of inflammatory cytokines.The TRIF-dependent pathway is induced by macrophages and DCs after TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Additionally, we have shown that cells infected with West Nile virus contain two distinct pathogen associated molecular patterns that are sensed by RIG-I and MDA5 respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • The classical pathway of complement activation is initiated when the C1 complex, made up of C1r and C1s serine proteases, recognizes the Fc region of IgM or IgG antibodies bound to a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many of acquired nonself surfaces e.g. carcinoembryonic/oncofetal type neoantigens carrying "internal danger source"/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic attacks) or sequestered (phagocytosed or ensheathed) by the immune system by virtue of the CLRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The Toll- dependent defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA). (sciencemag.org)
  • Proper activation of innate immunity and full immune protection to the emerging infectious disease of West Nile virus has previously been shown to be dependent on viral recognition by the host RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein family. (jimmunol.org)
  • Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons. (nih.gov)
  • C3a is a 77 residue anaphylatoxin that binds to the C3a receptor (C3aR), a class A G protein-coupled receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • C3a induces an immunological response through a 482 residue G-protein-coupled receptor called C3aR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLR4 is a transmembrane protein, member of the toll-like receptor family, which belongs to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPS recognition is initiated by an LPS binding to an LBP protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007 it was found that IRAK4 activity was necessary for activating signal pathways which lead to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), or Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses (TLR), but was not essential to T-cell Receptor (TCR) signalling as was originally proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The Fab region of the antibody binds to the antigen, whereas the Fc region of the antibody binds to an Fc receptor on the phagocyte, facilitating phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • The Drosophila Toll receptor does not interact directly with microbial determinants, but is instead activated by a cleaved form of the cytokine-like molecule Spätzle. (epfl.ch)
  • It was suggested that microbial infection was the main evolutionary pressure for this pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytosis
  • Phagocytic cells do not have an Fc receptor for immunoglobulin M (IgM), making IgM ineffective in assisting phagocytosis alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • After C3b has bound to the surface of an antigen, it can be recognized by phagocyte receptors that signal for phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • These signaling pathways are main sensors of infection and tissue damage and play the crucial role in control of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders accompanying for example tissue regeneration or aging processes. (gate2biotech.cz)
  • Other than the alternative pathway, which is constantly active, C3a formation is triggered by pathogenic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytic
  • As an example, annexin I is externalized in the same locations as phosphatidylserine and helps with clustering phagocytic phosphatidylserine receptors around the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Toll-like receptors were first discovered in Drosophila and trigger the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and activation of other host defense programs that are necessary for both innate or adaptive immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • IKKs' signaling pathway leads to the induction of the transcription factor NF-κB, while activation of MAPK cascades lead to the activation of another transcription factor AP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK pathways have both a positive and negative regulation in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK pathways in plants are known to regulate cell growth, cell development, cell death, and cell responses to environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • Here, we demonstrate the essential role of ModSP, a modular serine protease, in the activation of the Toll pathway by gram-positive bacteria and fungi. (epfl.ch)
  • There are three pathways of activation, each of which leads to the formation of C3a and C3b, which is involved in antigen opsonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of cell death, although the activation route of caspase-1 is varied, the downstream signalling pathway will converge to result in the pyroptotic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of the alternative complement pathway, the spontaneous activation of a complement cascade converts C3 to C3b, a component that can serve as an opsonin when bound to an antigen's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Don't-eat-me signals (also SAMPs = self-associated molecular patterns) are present on all host viable cells and actively protect the cells from engulfment. (wikipedia.org)
  • When one of these pathways is stimulated, the cell is triggered to release proinflammatory signals and to trigger innate immune actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • The postdoctoral researcher will have an opportunity to participate in ongoing grant projects targeting unresolved aspects of pattern recognition receptors signaling in peripheral blood monocytes in context of inflammation and immunosenescence. (gate2biotech.cz)
  • responses
  • In Arabidopsis roots, the RALF- FER signal transduction pathways continues to control and moderate cell growth and hormone responses in the plasma membrane and root cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • FER also plays a role in regulating the elongation length of plant roots in Arabidopsis as well as regulating pathways involved with hormone responses such as auxin-promoted root hair growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I". Cell Host & Microbe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Different TREM receptors appear to have contrasting roles in controlling myeloid immune activity therefore the relative and co-ordinated regulation of their expression is important to understand but is currently poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data show co-ordinated but divergent regulation of microglial TREM receptor expression with a central role for NF-κB. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasma
  • Unlike most viruses that enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, most paramyxoviruses deliver their genome into the cytoplasm directly by fusion with the plasma membrane ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • FER could occupy parts of the microdomains found in the plasma membrane and perform with both the receptors and coreceptors to create signaling platforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll
  • Among its related pathways are Tuberculosis and Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways . (genecards.org)
  • This idea of a cascade of phosphorylation events was supported by a study where an IRAK4 knockout in mice showed a more severe phenotype than other IRAK knockout experiments and signalling through Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) is virtually eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptors have also been shown to be an important link between innate and adaptive immunity through their presence in dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • all members of this family have in common a so-called TIR (toll-IL-1 receptor) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been estimated that most mammalian species have between ten and fifteen types of toll-like receptors. (wikipedia.org)