• macrophages
  • The mannose receptor (Cluster of Differentiation 206, CD206) is a C-type lectin primarily present on the surface of macrophages and immature dendritic cells, but is also expressed on the surface of skin cells such as human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through this domain, the mannose receptor internalises collagen in macrophages and liver sinusoidal cells, independent of the lectin activity of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These patterns include eat-me signals on the apoptotic cells, loss of don't-eat-me signals on viable cells and come-get-me signals (also find-me signals)) secreted by the apoptotic cells in order to attract phagocytes (mostly macrophages and immature dendritic cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The signaling complex reacts with TRAF6 which leads to TAK1 activation and consequently the induction of inflammatory cytokines.The TRIF-dependent pathway is induced by macrophages and DCs after TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • The Drosophila Toll receptor does not interact directly with microbial determinants, but is instead activated by a cleaved form of the cytokine-like molecule Spätzle. (epfl.ch)
  • It was suggested that microbial infection was the main evolutionary pressure for this pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytosis
  • Phagocytic cells do not have an Fc receptor for immunoglobulin M (IgM), making IgM ineffective in assisting phagocytosis alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • After C3b has bound to the surface of an antigen, it can be recognized by phagocyte receptors that signal for phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • Here, we demonstrate the essential role of ModSP, a modular serine protease, in the activation of the Toll pathway by gram-positive bacteria and fungi. (epfl.ch)
  • Proper activation of innate immunity and full immune protection to the emerging infectious disease of West Nile virus has previously been shown to be dependent on viral recognition by the host RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein family. (jimmunol.org)
  • There are three pathways of activation, each of which leads to the formation of C3a and C3b, which is involved in antigen opsonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical pathway of complement activation is initiated when the C1 complex, made up of C1r and C1s serine proteases, recognizes the Fc region of IgM or IgG antibodies bound to a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alternative pathway of complement activation is typically always active at low levels in blood plasma through a process called tick-over, in which C3 spontaneously hydrolyzes into its active form, C3(H2O). (wikipedia.org)
  • IKKs' signaling pathway leads to the induction of the transcription factor NF-κB, while activation of MAPK cascades lead to the activation of another transcription factor AP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of cell death, although the activation route of caspase-1 is varied, the downstream signalling pathway will converge to result in the pyroptotic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptors were first discovered in Drosophila and trigger the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and activation of other host defense programs that are necessary for both innate or adaptive immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of the alternative complement pathway, the spontaneous activation of a complement cascade converts C3 to C3b, a component that can serve as an opsonin when bound to an antigen's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytic
  • As an example, annexin I is externalized in the same locations as phosphatidylserine and helps with clustering phagocytic phosphatidylserine receptors around the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • The Toll- dependent defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA). (sciencemag.org)
  • Adaptive patterns of phenotypic plasticity in laboratory and field environments in Drosophila melanogaster . (sdbonline.org)
  • MAPK
  • In 2007 it was found that IRAK4 activity was necessary for activating signal pathways which lead to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), or Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses (TLR), but was not essential to T-cell Receptor (TCR) signalling as was originally proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK pathways have both a positive and negative regulation in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK pathways in plants are known to regulate cell growth, cell development, cell death, and cell responses to environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • The TIR-IRAK signaling pathway appears to be crucial for protective immunity against specific bacteria but is redundant against most other microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used often to observe and understand plant immunity and it can be used to observe the functions of pattern recognition receptors (PRR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptors have also been shown to be an important link between innate and adaptive immunity through their presence in dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Don't-eat-me signals (also SAMPs = self-associated molecular patterns) are present on all host viable cells and actively protect the cells from engulfment. (wikipedia.org)
  • When one of these pathways is stimulated, the cell is triggered to release proinflammatory signals and to trigger innate immune actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Additionally, we have shown that cells infected with West Nile virus contain two distinct pathogen associated molecular patterns that are sensed by RIG-I and MDA5 respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • These patterns of plasticity vary among traits and are highly distinct between the two examined geographic regions, consistent with patterns of local adaptation to climate and associated environmental parameters. (sdbonline.org)
  • regulate
  • These findings demonstrate that high-fat feeding induces peripheral inflammation and weight gain in a RAGE-dependent manner, providing a foothold in the pathways that regulate diet-induced obesity and offering the potential for therapeutic intervention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Feronia is the receptor to RALF and was found to regulate the effect of RALF in the cell elongation in the Arabidopsis roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • In Arabidopsis roots, the RALF- FER signal transduction pathways continues to control and moderate cell growth and hormone responses in the plasma membrane and root cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • FER also plays a role in regulating the elongation length of plant roots in Arabidopsis as well as regulating pathways involved with hormone responses such as auxin-promoted root hair growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I". Cell Host & Microbe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Different TREM receptors appear to have contrasting roles in controlling myeloid immune activity therefore the relative and co-ordinated regulation of their expression is important to understand but is currently poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data show co-ordinated but divergent regulation of microglial TREM receptor expression with a central role for NF-κB. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasma
  • Unlike most viruses that enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, most paramyxoviruses deliver their genome into the cytoplasm directly by fusion with the plasma membrane ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • FER could occupy parts of the microdomains found in the plasma membrane and perform with both the receptors and coreceptors to create signaling platforms. (wikipedia.org)