• reinfection
  • While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective for the treatment of schistosomiasis, reinfection occurs frequently following drug treatment, thus a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibrosis
  • Th17 down-regulation is involved in reduced progression of schistosomiasis fibrosis in ICOSL KO mice. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, there was a clearly positive correlation between the presence of IL-17-producing cells and ICOS expression in ICOSL KO mice, and additional results indicated that Th17 was involved in the pathological tissue remodeling in liver fibrosis induced by schistosomiasis. (nih.gov)
  • Masson trichrome stained sections of liver showed typical pathological characteristics of liver of schistosomiasis with remarkable acute granuloma formation and subsequent liver fibrosis from week 7 through week 16 (Fig. 6A). (nih.gov)
  • 2 Historically, schistosomiasis had a devastating effect on chronically infected patients, causing liver fibrosis with portal hypertension and frequently, resulting in life-threatening upper-gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • endemic
  • However, preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis, where people and communities are targeted for large-scale treatment, is only required in 52 endemic countries with moderate-to-high transmission. (who.int)
  • In areas endemic for schistosomiasis, the World Health Organization recommends regular mass treatment of all school-age children. (scielo.org.za)
  • Therefore, there is still much work to be done in order to control and decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1 Over 800 million people are at the risk of acquiring schistosomiasis in 76 endemic countries, with 46 of these countries in Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • disproportionately
  • 12 In Sichuan Province, children represent a significant portion of the affected population, 11 and in most parts of the world, children are disproportionately affected by schistosomiasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Schistosomiasis has been considered a "neglected disease" that disproportionately affects poorer localities and has received little attention from pharmaceutical companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines
  • Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and arginase-1 by type 1/type 2 cytokines in vivo: granulomatous pathology is shaped by the pattern of L-arginine metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiative
  • In general, we focus our discussion on work similar to that of the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative . (givewell.org)
  • Support for current research efforts to develop hookworm vaccines has come from the Schistosomiasis Vaccine Initiative, a program of the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with George Washington University, the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, the Chinese Institute of Parasitic Diseases, the Queensland Institute of Medical Research, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • 7 Schistosomiasis is found in areas with poor sanitation where humans are in contact with water contaminated by human waste (urine, genital tract excretions and faeces) either as part of their daily lives or during recreational or professional activities. (scielo.org.za)
  • cattle
  • Surveillance for cattle schistosomiasis is generally inadequate and the literature is limited, but some idea of the problem can be gained from past small scale studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Cardiopulmonary schistosomiasis may cause larval pneumonitis with a cough, mild wheezing, and a low-grade fever, while in schistosomal cor pulmonale, easy fatigability, palpitations, dyspnea on exertion, and hemoptysis are present. (medscape.com)
  • Hospital
  • In 1936 he emigrated to Venezuela, where he became the founding director of the Institute of Pathology at the Vargas Hospital in Caracas, which he based on the German model. (wikipedia.org)