• responses
  • The dynamic interactions between the severity, overall duration, and repetitive frequency of IH and the level of maturity of the organs and systems at the time of IH will modify the ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia and the adaptive (beneficial) or maladaptive (detrimental) consequences after exposure to IH. (frontiersin.org)
  • The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive (intracardiac) catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulation (PES). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Promising avenues for treatment, such as the potential of low-level light therapy to increase the rate of oxygen consumption in the brain and enhance cortical metabolic capacity, and the possibility that some antihypertensive drug classes reduce the risk and progression of AD more than others, are discussed. (iospress.nl)
  • hepatic
  • Examination should also exclude other causes of gross edema-especially the cardiovascular and hepatic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hypoalbuminemia of less than 2.5 g/dL, that exceeds the hepatic clearance level, that is, protein synthesis in the liver is insufficient to increase the low blood protein levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the setting of insulin resistance, there is elevated lipolysis and release of free fatty acids into the blood stream which contributes to further insulin resistance via increasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and preventing insulin dependent glucose uptake in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • Similarly, AKI after cardiac surgery occurs in over 10% of patients under normal circumstances and is associated with dramatic increases in mortality. (jove.com)
  • In some studies, low body weight has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in late middle-aged or elderly subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low body weight in the elderly can be caused by pathological conditions associated with aging and predisposing to higher mortality (such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, or depression) or of the cachexia (wasting syndrome) and sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass, structure, and function). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescence (/sɪˈnɛsəns/) or biological aging (also spelled biological ageing) is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • This increased pressure inhibits venous return to the heart and thus less atrial expansion and activation of baroreceptors occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis and autophagy are both forms of programmed cell death, but necrosis was long seen as a non-physiological process that occurs as a result of infection or injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • In this context, the effects attributed to particle exposure can be interpreted as a phenomenon related to accelerated aging. (nanoeh2017.dk)
  • The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has been shown to counteract many of the physiological effects of the Angiotensin II (Ang II) Type 1 Receptor (AT1R), including vasoconstrictor and proliferative actions. (ufl.edu)
  • The majority of well-known Ang II actions are mediated via AT 1 receptor stimulation, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and AT 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have been widely used as antihypertensive drugs, with the expectation of cardiovascular protective effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Subsequently, it was suggested that EDHF is a sulfur signal that results in activation of K channels via sulfhydration of a cysteine residue (formation of a cysteine persulfide) (https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.240242) C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been shown to exert a variety of cardiovascular effects including vasodilation and hyperpolarization of arteries through the opening of KCa+-channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • B) approaches based on observations of animals in naturalistic settings, which avoided artificial environments and unnatural stresses, but usually not allowing the measurement of physiological effects or the manipulation of relevant variables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human victims typically experience symptoms like low self-esteem (due to low regard by the group), feelings of depression (due to unworthiness of efforts), social withdrawal (reduced investments in the social environment), anxiety (due to a threatening environment), and they can also be shown to experience a plethora of physiological effects, e.g. increased corticosterone levels, and also a shift towards sympathetic balance in the autonomic nervous system (Bjorkqvist, 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac adverse effects may include palpitations, changes in blood pressure and heart rate (typically mild), tachycardia (rapid resting heart rate), and Raynaud's phenomenon (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet). (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • As a result of increased intracellular concentrations of the lipid diacylglycerol (DAG), an intermediary in glucose and fat metabolism, PKC is chronically activated in diabetes and nondiabetic insulin resistance. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 An alternative mechanism, producing a more sustained increase in DAG concentration, is through a pathway that begins with hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D. 5 Much less is known about the chronic activation of PKC through synthesis of DAG from glucose or lipid metabolites in diabetes and insulin resistance (see next section). (ahajournals.org)
  • system
  • They are not particularly sensitive to changes in pathological state and are insufficient in characterizing the complex dynamics of a nonlinear system. (hindawi.com)
  • 7 Some experimental 8 9 10 11 and autopsy 12 13 14 15 data support the hypothesis that arterial hypertension per se or through the interaction of complex humoral factors, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelins, or other unknown factors, could determine an increase in intramyocardial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • approaches
  • The diagnostics of cardiovascular risk factors in AD are addressed, as are potential therapeutic approaches. (iospress.nl)
  • RSA is pronounced in children, but without sufficient cardiovascular exercise it gradually disappears as a person approaches his/her teenage years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. (jove.com)
  • Social psychology approaches to human aggression have developed a multitude of perspectives, based on observations of human phenomena like bullying, mobbing, physical and verbal abuse, relational and indirect aggression, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • We sought to determine if functional measures of cardiovascular reserve, in particular the anaerobic threshold (VO?AT) could identify these patients. (jove.com)
  • A recent study of hospitalized patients revealed that only a mild increase in serum creatinine levels (0.3 to 0.4 mg/dl) is associated with a 70% greater risk of death than in persons without any increase 1 . (jove.com)
  • Of the 72 included cirrhotic patients, 32 (44.4%) showed a pathological result for the PFA-100. (jove.com)
  • 0.010) are the predictors of a pathological PFA-100 test in cirrhotic patients. (jove.com)
  • Vitreous samples from patients with PVD enhanced MLC phosphorylation and gel contraction, whereas simvastatin almost completely inhibited these phenomena. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We wish to stimulate a comprehensive understanding of such a complex physiological phenomenon as intermittent hypoxia, which may be accompanied by other confounding factors (e.g., hypercapnia, polycythemia), in order to prevent or reduce its harmful consequences, while maximizing its potential utility as an effective therapeutic tool in pediatric patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • This acute form of insulin resistance that may result post-operatively tends to increase over the short term, with sensitivity to insulin typically returning to patients after about five days. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • It is now known that mRNA is not always translated into protein, and the amount of protein produced for a given amount of mRNA depends on the gene it is transcribed from and on the current physiological state of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze myocardial echo density in a group of hypertensive individuals selected on the basis of a severe increase in LVM compared with an LVM- and age-matched group of elite senior athletes and with normal age-matched sedentary control subjects and to demonstrate whether some differences exist between the two models of cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • receptors
  • 2-9 Therefore, recent advances in studies of Ang II receptors could prove the existence of a variety of new players and targets in addition to the traditional "Ang II world" and provide a new insight into cardiovascular biology. (ahajournals.org)
  • blood
  • They are in development primarily as anti-thrombotics, i.e. drugs to treat pathological blood clotting in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pronounced loss of proteins is due to an increase in glomerular permeability that allows proteins to pass into the urine instead of being retained in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue heart valves, in contrast, do not require the use of anticoagulant drugs due to the improved blood flow dynamics resulting in less red cell damage and hence less clot formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk factors
  • To date, trials that target major cardiovascular risk factors in the prevention of AD remain inconclusive but have become an important focus of international research as described by contributors of this special volume in their overviews. (iospress.nl)
  • Finally, vascular inflammation detected by FDG-PET/CT has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors 21,22 and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis 23 . (jove.com)
  • mechanisms
  • The physiopathological mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon are discussed. (iospress.nl)
  • 1 However, increasing evidence supports that PKC is involved in many mechanisms promoting atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ehrlich later adjusted his theory to recognize the possibility of autoimmune tissue attacks, but believed certain innate protection mechanisms would prevent the autoimmune response from becoming pathological. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • IP 3 contributes to PKC activation by a separate mechanism, through opening of IP 3 -gated Ca 2+ transport channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, thereby increasing [Ca 2+ ] i . (ahajournals.org)
  • Heart
  • Increased vagal tone (and thus vagal action) is associated with a diminished and more variable heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is characterized by an increased heart rate during inhalation and a diminished heart rate during exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, heart rate increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These nonlinear dynamics methods have wide applications in physiological signals, such as heart rate variability, electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and electromyography [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Valves are integral to the normal physiological functioning of the human heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural heart valves become dysfunctional for a variety of pathological causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • USFDA-commissioned studies from 2011 indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events (sudden death, heart attack, and stroke) and the medical use of methylphenidate or other ADHD stimulants. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, a number of physiological and technical issues can affect the accuracy of the results and appropriate guidelines for the technique have been published. (jove.com)
  • biological
  • In a number of species calorie restriction without malnutrition may slow the biological aging process, resulting in longer maintenance of youthful health and an increase in both median and maximum lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown to activate
  • An increase in extracellular K+ has been shown to activate an ouabain-sensitive electrogenic Na+-K+-ATPase followed by hyperpolarization and smooth muscle cell relaxation. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathophysiological
  • In addition, activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis also attenuates many of the pathophysiological states that involve increased production of Ang II by Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE), and subsequent activation of the AT1R (ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis). (ufl.edu)
  • events
  • Therefore, this echocardiographic tool might help to identify those hypertensive individuals with abnormal interstitial collagen deposition, a condition that may promote and/or aggravate morbidity in this group of people who are at high risk for cardiovascular events. (ahajournals.org)