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  • vastus medial
  • The centering of the patella in the trochlear groove is related to the strength of the vastus medialis obliqus (a part of the vastus medialis muscle) and the medial patello-femoral ligaments which pulls the patella towards the opposite knee while the vastus lateralis and lateral patello-femoral ligaments pull the knee cap towards the outside (lateral) aspect of the knee. (arthroscopy.com)
  • cartilage
  • As a form of protection, both bones also contain cartilage - strong, flexible tissue - in the areas near the patella. (healthline.com)
  • Babies are born with a patella of soft cartilage which begins to ossify into bone at about three years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the great stress on the patellofemoral joint during resisted knee flexion, the articular cartilage of the patella is among the thickest in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Lateral views can be useful in evaluating the trabecular arrangement of the patella, as well as comminution and separation of fracture fragments. (medscape.com)
  • Lateral patella luxation. (petplace.com)
  • with the vastus intermedius muscle attaching to the base itself, and the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are attached to outer lateral and medial borders of patella respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human left patella from the front Human left patella from behind The upper three-quarters of the patella articulates with the femur and is subdivided into a medial and a lateral facet by a vertical ledge which varies in shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • Medial patella luxation (MPL) is a condition in which the patella (knee-cap) no longer glides within its natural groove (sulcus) in the femur, the upper bone of the knee joint. (petplace.com)
  • This will present with exactly the same clinical signs as a medial patella luxation but the displacement is to the outside rather than the inside of the knee. (petplace.com)
  • tendon
  • Growth spurts, common in teens, may result in a mildly abnormal alignment of the patella, which increases the angle formed by the thigh and the patellar tendon (Q-angle). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The patellar tendon goes from the bottom of the patella to the front of the tibia known as the tibial tubercle. (arthroscopy.com)
  • If the patella or the tendon associated with it becomes injured, a person will experience difficulty walking, running, standing, or engaging in athletic activity. (healthline.com)
  • The tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle attaches to the base of the patella. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper third of the front of the patella is coarse, flattened, and rough, and serves for the attachment of the tendon of the quadriceps and often has exostoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patella increases the leverage that the tendon can exert on the femur by increasing the angle at which it acts. (wikipedia.org)
  • straighten
  • When the quadriceps muscle contracts (shortens), it pulls the patella which in turns pulls on the tibial tubercle, which causes the knee to straighten (go into extension). (arthroscopy.com)
  • glides
  • As the knee moves, the patella glides across the front of the knee joint in a shallow groove on the front of the femur which is known as the trochlear groove of the femur. (arthroscopy.com)
  • nail-patella
  • Nail-patella syndrome , is a genetic disease of the connective tissue that produces defects in the fingernails, knee caps, and kidneys. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nail-patella syndrome is also known as Fong Disease, Hereditary Onycho-Osteodysplasia (H.O.O.D.), Iliac Horn Disease, and Turner-Kieser syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients who have nail-patella syndrome may show a variety of physical defects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nail-patella syndrome is associated with open-angle glaucoma, which, if untreated, may lead to blindness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • People with nail-patella syndrome may display only a few or many of the recognized signs of this disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The incidence of nail-patella syndrome is approximately one in 50,000 births. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The strongest risk factor for nail-patella syndrome is a family history of the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nail-patella syndrome has been recognized as an inherited disorder for over 100 years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mutations in this gene have been detected in many unrelated people with nail-patella syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists have also been able to interrupt this gene in mice to produce defects similar to those seen in human nail-patella syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nail-patella syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When a parent has nail-patella syndrome each of their children has a 50% chance to inherit the disease-causing mutation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A new mutation causing nail-patella syndrome can also occur, causing disease in a person with no family history. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This is called a sporadic occurrence and accounts for approximately 20% of cases of nail-patella syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The children of a person with sporadic nail-patella syndrome are also at a 50% risk of developing signs of the disorder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Medical signs of nail-patella syndrome vary widely between patients. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These patients are discovered to have the nail-patella syndrome only when genetic studies trace their family history. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most obvious sign associated with nail-patella syndrome is absent, poorly developed, or unusual fingernails. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The lunulae, or light-colored crescent moons, at the base of the fingernail bed next to the cuticle are sometimes triangularly-shaped in people with nail-patella syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The knees of people with nail-patella syndrome may have a square appearance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The hip bones of approximately 80% of patients with nail-patella syndrome have unusual bony projections called posterior iliac horns. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since Nail Patella Syndrome (NPS) is caused by a mutant gene which affects the embryonic development, it has no cure. (news-medical.net)
  • laterally
  • When this happens, the patella begins to move laterally (towards the outside) within the trochlear groove. (arthroscopy.com)
  • Emarginations (i.e. patella emarginata, a "missing piece") are common laterally on the proximal edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • It involves the patella sliding out of its position on the knee, most often laterally, and may be associated with extremely intense pain and swelling. (wikipedia.org)
  • femur
  • and the patello-femoral joint which is the joint space between the patella and the femur. (arthroscopy.com)
  • A tracking problem refers to the fact that the patella stays in place in front of the knee, but it no longer remains centered in the front part of the femur known as the trochlear groove. (arthroscopy.com)
  • Basically, all of the above diagnoses refer to a biomechanical abnormality of the joint space between the patella and the trochlear groove of the femur. (arthroscopy.com)
  • When all of these forces are in proper alignment, the patella is centered in the trochlear groove of the femur. (arthroscopy.com)
  • occur
  • There are several basic types of abnormalities that may occur with the patella: it may dislocate (slip out of place), sublux (partially slip out of place), fracture, develop degenerative arthritis, or develop a tracking problem. (arthroscopy.com)
  • Traumatic patella luxation can of course occur at any age and is usually secondary to being hit by a car. (petplace.com)
  • citation needed] Partite patellas occur almost exclusively in men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tripartite and even multipartite patellas occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligaments
  • Patellectomy (in cases of comminuted fracture) is removal of the entire patella, whereas a partial patellectomy is removal of only a portion of the patella, while any ligaments or tendons that had been connected to the removed portion are connected to the remaining portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • thigh
  • The vastus medialis obliqus muscle or VMO for short is the quad muscle on the inside of the thigh and is responsible for maintaining the stability of the patella towards the inside of the knee. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • occurs
  • This disorder of the patella occurs in adolescents and young adults and is more common in women than men. (empowher.com)
  • bony
  • You can't really compare luxating patellas to arthritis, because arthritis is a degenerative disease, in which the bones slowly change shape, calcify and the joints become inflamed from the bony changes. (terrificpets.com)