• ozone
  • Since 1999, the United States EPA has replaced the Pollution Standards Index (PSI) with the Air Quality Index (AQI) to incorporate new PM2.5 and ozone standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Incineration or flaring is used when an organic pollutant can be oxidized to CO2 and water. (prezi.com)
  • Arhami M, Kuhn T, Fine PM, Defino RJ, Sioutas C. Effects of sampling artifacts and operating parameters on the performance of a semicontinuous particulate elemental carbon/organic carbon monitor. (epa.gov)
  • Among the most disruptive pesticides are those dubbed Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which do not break down easily in the environment, or if they do they become something equally harmful. (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • The multivariate statistical models will also consider the contributions of pollutant gases, weather conditions, and other potential covariates. (grantome.com)
  • Their biggest disadvantages are that they are not capable of removing submicrometer partculates and they do not efficiently absorb most pollutant gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These standards are put into place in order to maintain air quality and human health and regulate the release the of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • PM10
  • In March 2014, Taiwanese legislators and the Taiwan Healthy Air Action Alliance claimed, based on reports by the World Health Organization, that the air quality in Taiwan is generally the worst of all of the Four Asian Tigers, in particularly drawing attention to the annual mean PM10 level of Taiwan (54 micrograms per cubic meter). (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Liquid sprays capture pollutants and also remove collected particles from the baffles. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquiddroplets, in air or another gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aerosol includes both the particles and the suspending gas, which is usually air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frederick G. Donnan presumably first used the term aerosol during World War I to describe an aero-solution, clouds of microscopic particles in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest devices for controlling particulates are settling chambers consisting of nothing more than wide places in the exhaust fuel where larger particles can settle, usually with a baffle to slow the emission stream. (prezi.com)
  • Response of human alveolar macrophages to ultrafine, fine, and coarse urban air pollution particles. (epa.gov)
  • These particles - suspended in the air by wind action and human activities - can be stirred up by the strong northeastern winds occurring in winter, also known as the northeastern monsoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regards to research conducted on PM2.5 particles in Taiwan, the National Taiwan University in March 2015 claimed that traffic is the major source of air pollutants in Taipei, while fine particles are produced primarily by thermal power plants in Central Taiwan. (wikipedia.org)
  • haze
  • Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • During haze episodes, PM2.5 is the most significant pollutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1997 Southeast Asian haze was a large-scale air quality disaster that occurred during the second half of 1997, its after-effects causing widespread atmospheric visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total costs of the Southeast Asian haze are estimated at US$9 billion, due mainly to health care and disruption of air travel and business activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smoke haze episode has added to the urban and industrial air pollution in Southeast Asia, causing it to reach alarming levels in many metropolitan areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fire-related smoke haze episodes also reveal a social component: a large part of the population in Southeast Asia do not have the financial means to buy protective measures such as respiratory masks and air conditioning, nor are they able to refrain from outdoor work when air pollution is high. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • 1975). Urban air contains large amounts of particulate pollutants, which are believed to contribute to this higher lung-cancer incidence (Menck et al. (springer.com)
  • Two major aspects of dosimetry are: (1) determining the initial amounts of pollutant deposited on specific sites within the respiratory tract, and (2) determining the fates of deposited material with respect to retention, movement and bioavailability. (epa.gov)
  • PM2.5
  • Further more, in greater Taipei, the outdoor PM2.5 concentration in the air at ground-level up until the height of three-stories is around ten to twenty times higher than the concentration in the air at the height of four-story buildings and above. (wikipedia.org)
  • By November 2015, it was claimed that the EPA's PM2.5 Index indicated poor air qualities for almost one-third of Taiwan's cities for more than one hundred days that year, with Nantou topping the list at 147 such days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on data from 2016, the Environmental group Air Clean Taiwan claimed in 2017 that Kaohsiung's Zuoying District, Yunlin's Lunbei Township and Pingtung were amongst the worst affected city (districts) in the country, with Lunbei topping the list regarding high levels of PM2.5, often prompting the red and purple alerts issued by the EPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • By introducing the inlet gas tangentially into the spray chamber, the cyclonic scrubber increases gas velocities (thus, particulate velocities) to approximately 60 to 180 m/s (200 to 600 ft/s). (wikipedia.org)
  • This higher particulate-to-liquid relative velocity increases particulate collection efficiency for this device over that of the spray chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1970s, despite frequent legislative gridlock, there have been significant achievements in environmental regulation, including increases in air and water quality and, to a lesser degree, control of hazardous waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • California Air R
  • The Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program (Carl Moyer Program) is a State of California engine retrofit and replacement program implemented through the cooperative efforts of local air districts such as the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) and the California Air Resources Board (ARB). (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that the low levels of air pollution in most industrialised societies are still linked to adverse health outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • scrubber
  • A number of wet-scrubber designs use energy from both the gas stream and liquid stream to collect pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • A centrifugal-fan scrubber can serve as both an air mover and a collection device. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spray tower or scrubber, is an effective method for removing large particulates. (prezi.com)
  • A chemical (such as lime) may be injected into the scrubber water that then reacts with the pollutants. (prezi.com)
  • Environmental Protec
  • As a result of the environmental movement in the United States, it continued to mature in the 1970s during which several environmental laws were passed, regulating air and water pollution and forming the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PSI is based on a scale devised by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to provide a way for broadcasts and newspapers to report air quality on a daily basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Furthermore, the enforcement of these set standards are designed to prevent further degradation of air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • diesel
  • In 2008, the Air District upgraded 360 heavy-duty diesel engines, with 90% of funds awarded to projects in San Francisco Bay Area impacted communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • quality
  • Deterioration of air quality is one of the many consequences of increased economic activity that comes with urbanization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the developments mentioned above relate to air quality in urban atmospheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bay Area Air Quality Management District's Strategic Incentives Division administers the program in the San Francisco Bay Area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bay Area Air Quality Management District awards Carl Moyer Program funds on a first-come, first-served basis to applicants with completed applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pollutant Standards Index, or PSI, is a type of air quality index, which is a number used to indicate the level of pollutants in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides Singapore, some other countries also use air quality indices. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the calculations used to derive their air quality indices may differ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different countries also use different names for their indices such as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and Pollutant Standards Index. (wikipedia.org)
  • This 3-hour PSI is unique to Singapore and was introduced in 1997 to provide additional air quality information which would better reflect a more current air quality situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influence of the 1997 fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra on ambient air quality was evident by July and peaked in September/October before weakening by November, when the delayed monsoonal rain extinguished the fires and improved air quality within the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Singapore, for instance, health surveillance showed a 30% increase in hospital attendance due to air quality related symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • WE ACT is dedicated to fighting environmental justice issues in the Northern Manhattan community.The organization focuses on urban quality of life issues such as climate justice, clean air, access to good jobs, public health, pollution, and sustainable and equitable land use. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle
  • Dosimetry, or the quantification of deposited and/or uncleared particulate mass, is of importance in both the design and interpretation of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite's (SCPCS) epidemiology and toxicology studies, and for estimating population exposures using air-monitoring data. (epa.gov)
  • Our morphometry and particle deposition calculations indicate that different mouse strains/varieties can receive different particle doses, even when exposed to the same air pollutant. (epa.gov)
  • effects
  • Much of the recent epidemiology has been based on time-series studies of large urban populations, although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. (bmj.com)
  • Studies of the long term effects of air pollution have been carried out in large cohorts. (bmj.com)
  • Grant
  • The program provides grant funding to encourage the voluntary purchase of cleaner-than-required engines, equipment, and emission reduction technologies in an effort to rapidly reduce air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • smoke
  • Smoke or soot was the first pollutant to be recognized as having significant environmental impact yet one of the last to be studied by the contemporary atmospheric research community. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • IQAir air purifiers were initially available only in Europe and Asia, but became available in the United States in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • Line source dispersion has been studied since at least the 1960s, when the regulatory framework in the United States began requiring quantitative analysis of the air pollution consequences of major roadway and airport projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • In August 2012, the company announced a major overhaul of its portable room air purifiers with the designation "New Edition" or "NE. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The company's history goes back to 1963, when German brothers Manfred and Klaus Hammes introduced an air filter system for residential coal ovens in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CleanZone SL is a slim, wall-mounted air cleaning system for particularly noise-sensitive indoor environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. HVAC-based air cleaning systems In 2006, IQAir introduced its first air cleaning system to work in conjunction with ducted forced-air heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Perfect 16 derives its name from being the first independently tested residential and commercial air cleaning system for HVAC systems to achieve the highest minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV 16) under the ASHRAE 52.2 test format. (wikipedia.org)