• PM10
  • In March 2014, Taiwanese legislators and the Taiwan Healthy Air Action Alliance claimed, based on reports by the World Health Organization, that the air quality in Taiwan is generally the worst of all of the Four Asian Tigers, in particularly drawing attention to the annual mean PM10 level of Taiwan (54 micrograms per cubic meter). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposures
  • Exposures to air pollutants may offset a portion of the health benefits of walking and bicycling in cities. (nih.gov)
  • Dosimetry, or the quantification of deposited and/or uncleared particulate mass, is of importance in both the design and interpretation of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite's (SCPCS) epidemiology and toxicology studies, and for estimating population exposures using air-monitoring data. (epa.gov)
  • gases
  • The multivariate statistical models will also consider the contributions of pollutant gases, weather conditions, and other potential covariates. (grantome.com)
  • Their biggest disadvantages are that they are not capable of removing submicrometer partculates and they do not efficiently absorb most pollutant gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • This 3-hour PSI is unique to Singapore and was introduced in 1997 to provide additional air quality information which would better reflect a more current air quality situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1997 Southeast Asian haze was a large-scale air quality disaster that occurred during the second half of 1997, its after-effects causing widespread atmospheric visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influence of the 1997 fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra on ambient air quality was evident by July and peaked in September/October before weakening by November, when the delayed monsoonal rain extinguished the fires and improved air quality within the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • PM2.5
  • This project addresses possible biological mechanisms underlying the adverse human health effects associated with exposure to the respirable fine particulate matter present in air pollution (PM2.5). (epa.gov)
  • Emphasis will be placed upon understanding what biochemical processes within these cells are altered by PM2.5 exposure and how fine particulates disrupt these processes. (epa.gov)
  • Initially PSI was based on five air pollutants, but since 1 April 2014 it has also included fine particulate matter (PM2.5). (wikipedia.org)
  • During haze episodes, PM2.5 is the most significant pollutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regards to research conducted on PM2.5 particles in Taiwan, the National Taiwan University in March 2015 claimed that traffic is the major source of air pollutants in Taipei, while fine particles are produced primarily by thermal power plants in Central Taiwan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further more, in greater Taipei, the outdoor PM2.5 concentration in the air at ground-level up until the height of three-stories is around ten to twenty times higher than the concentration in the air at the height of four-story buildings and above. (wikipedia.org)
  • By November 2015, it was claimed that the EPA's PM2.5 Index indicated poor air qualities for almost one-third of Taiwan's cities for more than one hundred days that year, with Nantou topping the list at 147 such days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on data from 2016, the Environmental group Air Clean Taiwan claimed in 2017 that Kaohsiung's Zuoying District, Yunlin's Lunbei Township and Pingtung were amongst the worst affected city (districts) in the country, with Lunbei topping the list regarding high levels of PM2.5, often prompting the red and purple alerts issued by the EPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Incineration or flaring is used when an organic pollutant can be oxidized to CO2 and water. (prezi.com)
  • Among the most disruptive pesticides are those dubbed Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which do not break down easily in the environment, or if they do they become something equally harmful. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurements
  • Most of the epidemiological investigations rely on measurements of the pollutant at some central location in the city and then use these data as a surrogate for individual exposure. (bmj.com)
  • Measurements of semivolatile and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a bus station and an urban tunnel in Salvador, Brazil. (epa.gov)
  • Mortality
  • Prior research shows that levels of air pollution fluctuate with the rise and fall of economic conditions, and this study is the first to investigate if these changes are associated with fluctuations in mortality rates. (nih.gov)
  • The authors investigated how air pollutants fluctuate with macroeconomic conditions and whether these variations help to explain observed fluctuations in mortality rates between the years of 1982 and 2009. (nih.gov)
  • The disastrous effects of coal pollution on human health and mortality in the early 1950s in London led to the UK Clean Air Act 1956. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • By introducing the inlet gas tangentially into the spray chamber, the cyclonic scrubber increases gas velocities (thus, particulate velocities) to approximately 60 to 180 m/s (200 to 600 ft/s). (wikipedia.org)
  • This higher particulate-to-liquid relative velocity increases particulate collection efficiency for this device over that of the spray chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1970s, despite frequent legislative gridlock, there have been significant achievements in environmental regulation, including increases in air and water quality and, to a lesser degree, control of hazardous waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • California Air R
  • The Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program (Carl Moyer Program) is a State of California engine retrofit and replacement program implemented through the cooperative efforts of local air districts such as the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) and the California Air Resources Board (ARB). (wikipedia.org)
  • statistical
  • Addition of the three air pollutants to the statistical model attenuated the predicted unemployment rate effect by about 17 percent, consistent with a substantial role for air pollution. (nih.gov)
  • The data he collected were used to build a statistical model to estimate air quality block by block across the city. (nih.gov)
  • scrubber
  • The spray tower or scrubber, is an effective method for removing large particulates. (prezi.com)
  • A chemical (such as lime) may be injected into the scrubber water that then reacts with the pollutants. (prezi.com)
  • A number of wet-scrubber designs use energy from both the gas stream and liquid stream to collect pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • A centrifugal-fan scrubber can serve as both an air mover and a collection device. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental Protec
  • As a result of the environmental movement in the United States, it continued to mature in the 1970s during which several environmental laws were passed, regulating air and water pollution and forming the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PSI is based on a scale devised by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to provide a way for broadcasts and newspapers to report air quality on a daily basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Furthermore, the enforcement of these set standards are designed to prevent further degradation of air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • quality
  • Exposure models for both panel and long-term PM studies will be constructed from central air quality monitors located in the three target neighborhoods. (grantome.com)
  • Their models of pedestrian and bicycle traffic and of air quality showed that 3-7% of city blocks were what they called "sour spots," with high levels of air pollution and high numbers of walkers and cyclists. (nih.gov)
  • As their name suggests, fixed-site monitors detect air quality only in the area immediately surrounding them. (nih.gov)
  • Deterioration of air quality is one of the many consequences of increased economic activity that comes with urbanization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the developments mentioned above relate to air quality in urban atmospheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emission standards are enacted to control the amount of pollutants that are released into the air in order to maintain air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pollutant Standards Index, or PSI, is a type of air quality index, which is a number used to indicate the level of pollutants in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides Singapore, some other countries also use air quality indices. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the calculations used to derive their air quality indices may differ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different countries also use different names for their indices such as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and Pollutant Standards Index. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bay Area Air Quality Management District's Strategic Incentives Division administers the program in the San Francisco Bay Area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bay Area Air Quality Management District awards Carl Moyer Program funds on a first-come, first-served basis to applicants with completed applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Singapore, for instance, health surveillance showed a 30% increase in hospital attendance due to air quality related symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, many air quality standards require that certain near worst case meteorological conditions be applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • WE ACT is dedicated to fighting environmental justice issues in the Northern Manhattan community.The organization focuses on urban quality of life issues such as climate justice, clean air, access to good jobs, public health, pollution, and sustainable and equitable land use. (wikipedia.org)
  • collect
  • Hankey plans to collect more data on air pollution and numbers of pedestrians and cyclists throughout the entire day, rather than just during afternoon rush hour. (nih.gov)
  • chemicals
  • The underlying hypothesis of this research is that respirable particulates carry as yet unidentified toxic environmental chemicals into the respiratory tract where they are deposited onto the epithelial cell lining and act to disrupt normal epithelial cell functions, resulting in inflammation. (epa.gov)
  • levels
  • In 2012, on approximately 40 runs between late August and the end of October, he rode a bicycle pulling a trailer with instruments that measured particulate air pollutant levels. (nih.gov)
  • The new air cleaners have improved airflow, filter life and reduced sound levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The index figures enable the public to determine whether the air pollution levels in a particular location are good, unhealthy, hazardous or worse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic concept of the roadway air dispersion model is to calculate air pollutant levels in the vicinity of a highway or arterial roadway by considering them as line sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a successful validation through the EPA research, the model was soon put to use in a variety of settings to forecast air pollution levels in the vicinity of roadways. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle
  • Our morphometry and particle deposition calculations indicate that different mouse strains/varieties can receive different particle doses, even when exposed to the same air pollutant. (epa.gov)
  • respiratory
  • Two major aspects of dosimetry are: (1) determining the initial amounts of pollutant deposited on specific sites within the respiratory tract, and (2) determining the fates of deposited material with respect to retention, movement and bioavailability. (epa.gov)
  • urban
  • The proposed study addresses the need for the improved understanding of the impact of transient and longer- term exposure to particulate matter present in urban air pollution on the cardiovascular health of children. (grantome.com)
  • The findings will help to better understand how urban air pollutants promote atherogenesis in children. (grantome.com)
  • Much of the recent epidemiology has been based on time-series studies of large urban populations, although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. (bmj.com)
  • Grant
  • The program provides grant funding to encourage the voluntary purchase of cleaner-than-required engines, equipment, and emission reduction technologies in an effort to rapidly reduce air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • smoke
  • Smoke or soot was the first pollutant to be recognized as having significant environmental impact yet one of the last to be studied by the contemporary atmospheric research community. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • IQAir air purifiers were initially available only in Europe and Asia, but became available in the United States in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • Line source dispersion has been studied since at least the 1960s, when the regulatory framework in the United States began requiring quantitative analysis of the air pollution consequences of major roadway and airport projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • In August 2012, the company announced a major overhaul of its portable room air purifiers with the designation "New Edition" or "NE. (wikipedia.org)