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  • blockade
  • There is increasing interest in antipsychotics intended to manage positive symptoms via D 2 receptor blockade and improve negative symptoms and cognitive deficits via 5-HT 1A activation. (springer.com)
  • Hyperprolactinemia is often seen among schizophrenic patients due to a D2 receptor blockade caused by antipsychotics [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • agonism
  • There is evidence that D1 receptor agonism regulates phospholipase C independent of cAMP, however implications and mechanisms remain poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examine data on in vitro binding and agonism and in vivo tests related to (1) positive symptoms (e.g., psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity or prepulse inhibition deficit), (2) negative symptoms (e.g., phencyclidine-induced social interaction deficits and cortical dopamine release), and (3) cognitive deficits (e.g., phencyclidine or scopolamine-induced memory deficits). (springer.com)
  • Atypical
  • Like most other atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine also strongly antagonizes the 5-HT2A receptor, which may partially underpin its reduced propensity for causing movement disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Amargos-Bosch M, Bortolozzi A, Puig MV, Serrats J, Adell A, Celada P, Toth M, Mengod G, Artigas F (2004) Co-expression and in vivo interaction of serotonin1A and serotonin2A receptors in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex. (springer.com)
  • prolactin
  • The aim of this investigation was to develop a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for the biological system prolactin response following a dopamine inhibition challenge using remoxipride as a paradigm compound. (springer.com)
  • vitro
  • In the present in vitro electrophysiological studies, we used four different mutant mice, in which the expression of specific DA receptors is either ablated or altered to clarify the involvement of the most abundant DA receptors expressed in the striatum, D1 and D2, in these functions. (jneurosci.org)
  • D2Sh
  • D2 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2), of which there are two forms: D2Sh (short) and D2Lh (long): The D2Sh form is pre-synaptically situated, having modulatory functions (viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • opioid
  • OSU-6162 - also 5-HT2A partial agonist, acts as "dopamine stabilizer" Roxindole (only at the D2 autoreceptors) RP5063 Salvinorin A - also κ-opioid agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interlocking between emotional valence and functional aspects of performance appears to be only partial since all monoamine and opioid receptor systems play important roles in non-emotional aspects of behaviour, in addition to emotionality. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Apomorphine does not actually contain morphine or its skeleton, nor does it bind to opioid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholinergic
  • Accordingly, immunohistochemical analyses in both wild-type and D1R-/- mice confirmed the expression of D5 receptors in both cholinergic and parvalbumin-positive interneurons of the striatum. (jneurosci.org)
  • whereas
  • The D1 and D5 receptors are members of the D1-like family of dopamine receptors, whereas the D2, D3 and D4 receptors are members of the D2-like family. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also found that all studies using objective indicators or structured interviews to assess stress replicated the gene-environment interaction fully or partially, whereas all non-replications relied on self-reported measures of adversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • serotonin
  • Akimova E, Lanzenberger R, Kasper S (2009) The serotonin-1A receptor in anxiety disorders. (springer.com)
  • who found that a gene-environment interaction (GxE) may explain why life stress is a predictor for depressive episodes in some individuals, but not in others, depending on an allelic variation of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR). (wikipedia.org)
  • rodent
  • Given that these animals do not possess the aberrant neuronal information processing typically associated with schizophrenia, the aim of the current study was to examine the dopamine D2 receptor system in a rodent model of schizophrenia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • compound
  • The invention relates to a method for determining whether a test compound binds preferentially to a membrane receptor R1 or to a membrane receptor R2, these receptors being known to be expressed on the surface of the cells in monomeric, homodimeric or heterodimeric form. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • schizophrenia
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with various behavioral phenotypes, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , schizophrenia and the personality trait of novelty seeking . (wikipedia.org)
  • Val194Gly A polymorphic tandem duplication of 120 bp[citation needed] Mutations in this gene have been associated with various behavioral phenotypes, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia and the personality trait of novelty seeking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the exact etiology of schizophrenia is not currently known, there is significant evidence for a dysfunction within the mesolimbic dopamine system ( Abi-Dargham, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus we hypothesize that activation of the dopamine 1 and/or 5 receptor will increase skeletal muscle cAMP levels thereby modulating skeletal muscle mass and force production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mutants
  • Vulnerability to acoustic injury was significantly increased in D2, D4 and D5 lines: D1 could not be tested, and no differences were seen in D3 mutants, consistent with a lack of receptor expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • mice
  • To overcome this issue, in the present study we used four different mutant mice in which the expression of specific DA receptors was ablated. (jneurosci.org)
  • We dosed wild-type mice, dopamine 1 receptor knockout mice and dopamine 5 receptor knockout mice undergoing casting-induced disuse atrophy with SKF 81297 to determine if activation of the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors results in hypertrophy of non-atrophying skeletal muscle and preservation of atrophying skeletal muscle mass and force production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In dopamine 1 receptor knockout mice, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle mass and force was not preserved during casting with SKF 81297 treatment, in contrast to significant preservation of casted wild-type mouse EDL and soleus mass and EDL force with SKF 81297 treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dosing dopamine 5 receptor knockout mice with SKF 81297 did not significantly preserve EDL and soleus muscle mass and force although wild-type mouse EDL mass and force was significantly preserved SKF 81297 treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • interaction
  • A 2010 review found 17 replications, 8 partial replications (interaction only in females or only with one of several types of adversity), and 9 non-replications (no interaction or an interaction in the opposite direction). (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • A recent study indicates that apomorphine might be a suitable marker for assessing central dopamine system alterations associated with chronic heroin consumption. (wikipedia.org)