• pathway
  • The discovery of activating Notch1 mutations in T-ALL has made the Notch pathway an attractive target for the development of small molecule drugs, with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) having the most immediate therapeutic potential ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • High glucose (HG) has been shown to trigger the reactive oxygen species-regulated NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and mesangial cell proliferation through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathway in early stage of HG exposure to mouse mesangial cells [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • SOCS-3 is selectively and rapidly induced by appropriate cytokines and modulates responses of immune cells to cytokines by interfering with the Janus kinase (Jak)/STAT pathway [ 9 , 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cyclin D is regulated by the downstream pathway of mitogen receptors via the Ras/MAP kinase and the β-catenin-Tcf/LEF pathways and PI3K. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, FOXO1 trans-activate Bim protein, which a member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes apoptosis and plays a role in the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • The CDK6 protein contains a catalytic core composed of a serine/threonine domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this sequential cascade is to bind ubiquitin to lysine residues on the protein substrate via an isopeptide bond, cysteine residues through a thioester bond, serine and threonine residues through an ester bond, or the amino group of the protein's N-terminus via a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first ubiquitin molecule is covalently bound through its C-terminal carboxylate group to a particular lysine, cysteine, serine, threonine or N-terminus of the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akt, a serine/threonine kinase, is recruited to the membrane by interaction with these phosphoinositide docking sites, so that it can be fully activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although PI3K is the major mode of Akt activation, other tyrosine or serine/threonine kinases have been shown to activate Akt directly, in response to growth factors, inflammation or DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine kinase Mirk/Dyrk1B is an inhibitor of epithelial cell migration and is negatively regulated by the Met adaptor Ran-binding protein M". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Cell division protein kinase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • MoaD, which is involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, interacts with MoeB, which acts like an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme for MoaD, strengthening the link between these prokaryotic proteins and the ubiquitin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SKP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These and other proteins are recognized and degraded by the proteasome from the sequential action of three enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme), one of many E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), and one of many E3 ubiquitin ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • The protein can be found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, however most of the active complexes are found in the nucleus of proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, these C-CDK complexes act as a kinase, phosphorylating and inactivating the protein of Rb and p-Rb related "pocket proteins" p107 and p130. (wikipedia.org)
  • Futhurmore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient for p21 and p27 had lower levels of cyclin D1 and immunoprecipitated cyclinD-CDK complexes had no kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The ARF protein also targets both the E2F1 and c-Myc transcription factors to the nucleolus, thus preventing their transcriptional activation of their target genes involved in S phase and/or transformation ( 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcription for p27 is activated by FoxO in response to cytokines, promyelocytic leukaemia proteins, and nuclear Akt signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism blocks any kinase activity and prevents downstream hyper-phosphorylation of Rb that allows release of the E2F transcription factor and transcription of cell cycle-related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIP/KIP proteins have also been shown to directly bind transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This promotes the export of Swi5 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and avoids further transcription of the cdk inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 rises when FOXO1 is active. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Finally, we show that elevated levels of FoxM1 protein correlate with high proliferation rates in human prostate adenocarcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This decrease in proliferation correlated with TP-induced HO-1 expression and was reversed by inhibitors of either TP or HO activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of CIP/KIP proteins in motility has also become particularly of interest in cancer where misregulation of p27 could result in increased proliferation and increased motility which may contribute to more invasive cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • It has been suggested that cell cycle specific binding proteins may favour one of the predicted structures in the G/C region thereby promoting conformational states which could regulate downstream translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • The signal transduction events which culminate in cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase are initiated as a result of ligand binding to an immunophilin known as FK binding protein-12. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • This is reasonable because Akt kinases are intermediaries in signaling by growth and antiapoptotic regulators and because components of the pathways are direct targets for carcinogenic mutations (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and triggered c- Jun -NH 2 -terminal-kinase activation, followed by the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • synthesis
  • In eukaryotes, the cell division cycle includes four discrete phases: Gap 1 (G1), Synthesis (S), Gap 2 (G2) and Mitosis (M). During the G1 phase, which is known as the first interphase, the cell synthesizes proteins that are needed for DNA replication and continuous growth. (springer.com)
  • 2002
  • Reed, 2002 ), suggesting that the same protein exerts additional activities in different subcellular compartments. (biologists.org)
  • substrate
  • Finally a chromogenic substrate is added that reacts with HRP to produce color, the intensity of which is directly proportional to the concentration of the protein present. (thermofisher.com)
  • The addition of ubiquitin to a substrate protein is called ubiquitination or less frequently ubiquitylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heat-stable polypeptide present in these extracts, ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was found to become covalently attached to the model protein substrate lysozyme in an ATP- and Mg2+-dependent process. (wikipedia.org)