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  • serine
  • The CDK6 protein contains a catalytic core composed of a serine/threonine domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this sequential cascade is to bind ubiquitin to lysine residues on the protein substrate via an isopeptide bond, cysteine residues through a thioester bond, serine and threonine residues through an ester bond, or the amino group of the protein's N-terminus via a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first ubiquitin molecule is covalently bound through its C-terminal carboxylate group to a particular lysine, cysteine, serine, threonine or N-terminus of the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akt, a serine/threonine kinase, is recruited to the membrane by interaction with these phosphoinositide docking sites, so that it can be fully activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although PI3K is the major mode of Akt activation, other tyrosine or serine/threonine kinases have been shown to activate Akt directly, in response to growth factors, inflammation or DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine kinase Mirk/Dyrk1B is an inhibitor of epithelial cell migration and is negatively regulated by the Met adaptor Ran-binding protein M". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • For example, p27Kip1 binds to cyclin D either alone, or when complexed to its catalytic subunit CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • These inhibitors possess an N-terminal CDK-inhibitory domain which binds to the ATP binding pocket of the kinase and modulates its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, adaptor molecule Grb2 binds to phospho-YXN motifs of the RTK and recruits p85 via Grb2-associated binding (GAB) scaffold protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the triphosphate form (PI(3,4,5)P3) binds Akt and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) so they accumulate in close proximity at the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FK designation was based on early studies conducted with tacrolimus, formerly known as FK-506, which binds this cytoplasmic protein with high affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent investigations showed that rapamycin also binds to this intracellular target, forming an FKBP12-rapamycin complex which is not in itself inhibitory, but does have the capacity to block an integral protein kinase known as target of rapamycin (TOR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral cyclin D binds human Cdk6 and inhibits Rb by phosphorylating it, resulting in free transcription factors which result in protein transcription that promotes passage through G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that binds RAN, a small GTP binding protein belonging to the RAS superfamily that is essential for the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The discovery of activating Notch1 mutations in T-ALL has made the Notch pathway an attractive target for the development of small molecule drugs, with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) having the most immediate therapeutic potential ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • High glucose (HG) has been shown to trigger the reactive oxygen species-regulated NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and mesangial cell proliferation through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathway in early stage of HG exposure to mouse mesangial cells [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • SOCS-3 is selectively and rapidly induced by appropriate cytokines and modulates responses of immune cells to cytokines by interfering with the Janus kinase (Jak)/STAT pathway [ 9 , 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cyclin D is regulated by the downstream pathway of mitogen receptors via the Ras/MAP kinase and the β-catenin-Tcf/LEF pathways and PI3K. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, FOXO1 trans-activate Bim protein, which a member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes apoptosis and plays a role in the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a p38 MAPK inhibitor for promoting proliferation of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). (arvojournals.org)
  • Activation of substrates of p38 MAPK and cell cycle regulatory proteins were evaluated by western blotting. (arvojournals.org)
  • Activation of p38 MAPK signaling due to culture stress might suppress the proliferation of HCECs, whereas a p38 MAPK inhibitor can counteract this activation and enable efficient in vitro HCEC expansion. (arvojournals.org)
  • enzyme
  • MoaD, which is involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, interacts with MoeB, which acts like an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme for MoaD, strengthening the link between these prokaryotic proteins and the ubiquitin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • These and other proteins are recognized and degraded by the proteasome from the sequential action of three enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme), one of many E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), and one of many E3 ubiquitin ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Finally, we show that elevated levels of FoxM1 protein correlate with high proliferation rates in human prostate adenocarcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regenerating islet-derived protein 3α (Reg3α) is a pancreatic secretory protein which functions as an antimicrobial peptide in control of inflammation and cell proliferation. (springer.com)
  • This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of CIP/KIP proteins in motility has also become particularly of interest in cancer where misregulation of p27 could result in increased proliferation and increased motility which may contribute to more invasive cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The ARF protein also targets both the E2F1 and c-Myc transcription factors to the nucleolus, thus preventing their transcriptional activation of their target genes involved in S phase and/or transformation ( 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcription for p27 is activated by FoxO in response to cytokines, promyelocytic leukaemia proteins, and nuclear Akt signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism blocks any kinase activity and prevents downstream hyper-phosphorylation of Rb that allows release of the E2F transcription factor and transcription of cell cycle-related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIP/KIP proteins have also been shown to directly bind transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This promotes the export of Swi5 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and avoids further transcription of the cdk inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 rises when FOXO1 is active. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21cip1
  • The CIP/KIP family is made up of three proteins: p21cip1/waf1, P27kip1, p57kip2 These proteins share sequence homology at the N-terminal domain which allows them to bind to both the cyclin and CDK. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor suppressor
  • Furthermore, development of prostate carcinomas in TRAMP/Rosa26-FoxM1b double TG mice required high levels of FoxM1 protein to overcome sustained expression of the alternative reading frame tumor suppressor, a potent inhibitor of FoxM1 transcriptional activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several function as tumor suppressor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • It has been suggested that cell cycle specific binding proteins may favour one of the predicted structures in the G/C region thereby promoting conformational states which could regulate downstream translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • The signal transduction events which culminate in cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase are initiated as a result of ligand binding to an immunophilin known as FK binding protein-12. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • A positive correlation between p27 and pRb2/p130 levels expressed, in normal and cancer counterparts in the same sample, as the difference between cytoplasmic and nuclear protein concentrations ( P = 0.045) was found. (aacrjournals.org)
  • regulatory
  • The p27 cis-regulatory element is a structured G/C rich RNA element which is involved in controlling cell cycle regulated translation of the p27kip protein in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms i.e. it occurs ubiquitously. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • This is reasonable because Akt kinases are intermediaries in signaling by growth and antiapoptotic regulators and because components of the pathways are direct targets for carcinogenic mutations (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and triggered c- Jun -NH 2 -terminal-kinase activation, followed by the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways. (aacrjournals.org)