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  • lungs
  • Furthermore, the human body is adapted to 21 percent oxygen, and the blood exiting the lungs already has about 97 percent of the oxygen that it could carry bound to hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having a higher oxygen fraction in the lungs serves no purpose, and may actually be detrimental. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liquid passed through several warming stages before use, as expansion when it evaporated, and absorbed latent heat of vaporization, would make the gasified oxygen so cold that it could cause instant frostbite of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • 2016 - Black Oxygen released a single and music video for "Whole Thang" featuring rappers, Kstylis and Kutt Calhoun, that was well received by the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth's oxygen cycle-the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O 2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. (pnas.org)
  • Oxygen is also a crucial component of enzymatic pathways leading to the synthesis of regulatory membrane lipids ( 5 ) and structural proteins ( 6 ) in eukaryotic organisms and provides a powerful shield against solar UV radiation at Earth's surface through stratospheric ozone production. (pnas.org)
  • concentration of oxygen
  • The most common application is to measure the exhaust-gas concentration of oxygen for internal combustion engines in automobiles and other vehicles in order to calculate and, if required, dynamically adjust the air/fuel ratio so that catalytic converters can work optimally, and also determine whether a catalytic converter is performing properly or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms 'singlet oxygen' and 'triplet oxygen' refer to the quantum state of the molecules: singlet oxygen exists in the singlet state with a total quantum spin of 0, while triplet oxygen has a total quantum spin of 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Oxygen is widely used in emergency medicine, both in hospital and by emergency medical services or those giving advanced first aid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to that, oxygen has become widely used in the metal processing, welding, cutting and brazing processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical and petrochemical industries In the chemical and petrochemical industries, oxygen is widely used for oxidation of raw chemicals for recovery of nitric acid, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, vinyl chloride and other important chemical compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequence
  • citation needed] As a consequence, singlet oxygen in the gas phase is extremely long lived (72 minutes), although interaction with solvents reduces the lifetime to microseconds or even nanoseconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • Large amounts of oxygen-18 enriched water are used in positron emission tomography centers, for on-site production of 18F-labeled fludeoxyglucose (FDG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Trace amounts of singlet oxygen are found in the upper atmosphere and also in polluted urban atmospheres where it contributes to the formation of lung-damaging nitrogen dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • atmosphere
  • A long-standing and pervasive view is that there have been intimate mechanistic links between the evolution of complex life on Earth-in other words, the emergence and ecological expansion of eukaryotic cells and their aggregation into multicellular organisms-and the secular evolution of ocean−atmosphere oxygen levels ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the study of plants' photorespiration, the labeling of atmosphere by oxygen-18 allows us to measure the oxygen uptake by the photorespiration pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated that, under preindustrial atmosphere, most plants reabsorb, by photorespiration, half of the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, the yield of photosynthesis was halved by the presence of oxygen in atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • Oxygen-18 (18 O) is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is this, the more stable of the two excited states, the one with its electrons remaining in separate degenerate orbital but no longer with like spin, that is referred to by the title term, singlet oxygen, commonly abbreviated 1O2, to distinguish it from the triplet ground state molecule, 3O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the only stable isotope of oxygen possessing a nuclear spin (+5/2) and a favorable characteristic of field-independent relaxation in liquid water, O-17 enables NMR studies of oxidative metabolic pathways through compounds containing 17O (i.e. metabolically produced H217O water by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria) at high magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • The modern preparation entails the reaction of fluorine with a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, with sodium fluoride as a side-product: 2 F2 + 2 NaOH → OF2 + 2 NaF + H2O Its powerful oxidizing properties are suggested by the oxidation number of +2 for the oxygen atom instead of its normal −2. (wikipedia.org)
  • moves
  • D being diffusivity (cm2/sec)--a measure of how fast the oxygen moves through the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pressure in the first cylinder drops as the enriched oxygen moves into the reservoir, allowing the nitrogen to be desorbed back into gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • volumes
  • PSA technology is a reliable and economical technique for small to mid-scale oxygen generation, with cryogenic separation more suitable at higher volumes and external delivery generally more suitable for small volumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the chemical and petrochemical industries, as well as in the oil and gas sector oxygen is used in commercial volumes as an oxidizer in chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tanks
  • They are a safer, less expensive, and more convenient alternative to tanks of cryogenic oxygen or pressurised cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Oxygen finds broad application in various technological processes and in almost all industry branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glass industry In glass furnaces oxygen is effectively used for burning temperature increase and burning processes improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • debut
  • Oxygen made her debut in this race on 12 July 1830 and finished second of the eight runners, two lengths behind a colt named Zany, with the future Derby winner Spaniel among the unplaced horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early 2012 Black Oxygen released their debut album "The American Dream. (wikipedia.org)
  • breathe
  • The machines used by oxygen bars or oxygen vendors differ from the typical medical-issue machine, although customers use the cannula, the rubber tube apparatus that fits around the ears and inserts in the nostrils, to breathe in the oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common use of supplementary oxygen is in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a common long-term effect of smoking, who may require additional oxygen to breathe either during a temporary worsening of their condition, or throughout the day and night. (wikipedia.org)
  • compressor
  • Structurally, the adsorption oxygen plant consists of several adsorbers, the compressor unit, pre-purifier unit, valve system and the plant control system. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung damage
  • Oxygen therapy is not recommended for patients who have suffered pulmonary fibrosis or other lung damage resulting from bleomycin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • ambient
  • In a pressure-demand system, oxygen in the mask is above ambient pressure, permitting breathing above 40,000 feet (12,000 m). (wikipedia.org)
  • nose
  • Oxygen masks may cover the nose and mouth (oral nasal mask) or the entire face (full-face mask). (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • Oxygen is often prescribed for people with breathlessness, in the setting of end-stage cardiac or respiratory failure, advanced cancer or neurodegenerative disease, despite having relatively normal blood oxygen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Some oxygen bar companies offer safe water-based aromas for flavoring in order to maintain compliance and stay within FDA guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • This level of oxygen makes welding a problem because hydrogen then combines with the oxygen to produce water vapour, which causes fractures. (angelfire.com)
  • Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, the major constituent of lifeforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1950s, Harold Urey performed an experiment in which he mixed both normal water and water with oxygen-18 in a barrel, and then partially froze the barrel's contents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen difluoride reacts very slowly with water to form hydrofluoric acid: OF2 (aq) + H2O (l) → 2 HF (aq) + O2 (g) OF2 + SO2 → SO3 + F2 However, in the presence of UV radiation the products are sulfuryl fluoride, SO 2F 2, and pyrosulfuryl fluoride, S 2O 5F 2: OF2 + 2 SO2 → S 2O 5F 2 OF2 is a strongly oxidizing gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • heavy water starts out incidentally enriched to about 550 ppm of oxygen-17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some tritium removal facilities make a point of replacing the oxygen of the water with natural oxygen (mostly 16O) to give the added benefit of reducing C-14 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher
  • Oxygen is naturally occurring in room air at 21% and higher percentages are often essential in medical treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below the oxygen mask is a rebreather bag that collects oxygen during exhalation and as a result allows a higher flow rate during the inhalation cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The singlet states of oxygen are 158 and 95 kilojoules per mole higher in energy than the triplet ground state of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • Rich mixture causes an oxygen demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lean mixture causes low voltage, since there is an oxygen excess. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygen plant flow process is arranged in such a way that highly absorbable gas mixture components are taken in by adsorbent, while low absorbable and non-absorbable components go through the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaches
  • The flavors in an oxygen bar come from bubbling oxygen through bottles containing aromatic solutions before it reaches the nostrils: most bars use food-grade particles to produce the scent, but some bars use aroma oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • In recognition of the Company's achievements, Oxygen was nominated at the 2007 World Mail Awards in the Corporate Social Responsibility category for its CargoScooter. (wikipedia.org)
  • waste
  • Waste management The use of oxygen in incinerators allows significantly increased flame temperatures and eventually ensures enhanced cost efficiency and incinerator production capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common
  • The use of oxygen in medicine became common around 1917. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen is believed to be the most common treatment given in hospitals in the developed world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal gas welding, cutting and brazing The use of oxygen in gas-flame operations, such as metal welding, cutting and brazing is one of the most significant and common applications of this gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen difluoride is the chemical compound with the formula OF2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of its chemical reactivity, however, singlet oxygen is far more reactive toward organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • announce
  • We're proud to announce the arrival of Eclipse Oxygen, the 12th annual simultaneous release from the Eclipse Community. (eclipse.org)
  • Laboratory
  • Project Oxygen is a research project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to develop pervasive, human-centered computing. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O 2 ) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. (pnas.org)
  • He did not expect, however, that tavern goers would "relish calling for a bottle of Air, instead of Claret" Another early reference to the recreational use of oxygen is found in Jules Verne's 1870 novel Around the Moon. (wikipedia.org)
  • free
  • The term 'oxygen free copper' can be a little confusing, partly because it is inaccurate, at best it will be 'oxygen reduced', and partly because of different standards. (angelfire.com)
  • After the oxygen and other free components are collected the pressure drops which allows nitrogen to desorb. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Anna Jordan Huff is an American singer-songwriter, producer, composer, multi-media artist, and actress best known by her stage Anna Oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Automotive oxygen sensors, colloquially known as O2 ("ō two") sensors, make modern electronic fuel injection and emission control possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connect
  • The Oxygen architecture is to consist of handheld terminals, computers embedded in the environment, and dynamically configured networks which connect these devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hoses or tubing connect an oxygen mask to the oxygen supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Note, different sources may use different units: contact package inserts often use cm2/sec, while academic papers may use other values for distance such as mm2/sec. k being the solubility (ml O2/ml of material x mm Hg)--a measure of how much oxygen is contained in the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EP features four different versions of the title track "Oxygen", originally from the band's 2014 album, To Be Kind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists use oxygen sensors to measure respiration or production of oxygen and use a different approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different ways of measuring oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. (pnas.org)
  • An oxygen level under 3 to 4 ppm is needed for reliable welding, and for this purpose reduced oxygen copper was developed. (angelfire.com)
  • The earliest models of soft contact lenses, based on hydrogel material, had a level of oxygen permeability of around 6-8 Dk/t. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also be indicated for any other patient where their injury or illness has caused hypoxaemia, although in this case oxygen flow should be moderated to achieve target oxygen saturation levels, based on pulse oximetry (with a target level of 94-98% in most patients, or 88-92% in COPD patients). (wikipedia.org)