• edema
  • Fluid replacement may be required to ensure adequate blood volume, but fluids are given carefully since fluid overload can worsen pulmonary edema, which may be lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main histomorphologic differential diagnosis is pulmonary edema, which does not have dense bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to potentially fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, congestion takes the form of water retention and swelling (edema), both as peripheral edema (causing swollen limbs and feet) and as pulmonary edema (causing breathing difficulty), as well as ascites (swollen abdomen). (wikipedia.org)
  • The circulatory overload caused, can result in an increased left ventricular diastolic pressure which can develop into pulmonary congestion (pulmonary edema). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the pathogenesis is uncertain, it is probable that the symptoms are a consequence of hemorrhagic pulmonary edema, as the hematocrit is lower than normal blood (usually 15-20% less) and the concentration of small proteins is higher than in plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • this increases pulmonary microvascular pressure, resulting in pulmonary edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxia
  • Cell adaptation to hypoxia (Hyp) requires activation of transcriptional programs that coordinate expression of genes involved in oxygen delivery (via angiogenesis) and metabolic adaptation (via glycolysis). (rupress.org)
  • Pulmonary shunting is minimized by the normal reflex constriction of pulmonary vasculature to hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because shunt represents areas where gas exchange does not occur, 100% inspired oxygen is unable to overcome the hypoxia caused by shunting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although hypoxia is often a pathological condition, variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during hypoventilation training or strenuous physical exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia can result from a failure at any stage in the delivery of oxygen to cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gills
  • However, in most larger organisms, which have a small surface-area to volume ratios, specialised structures with convoluted surfaces such as gills, pulmonary alveoli and spongy mesophyll provide the large area needed for effective gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the case with the alveoli, which form the inner surface of the mammalian lung, the spongy mesophyll, which is found inside the leaves of some kinds of plant, or the gills of those molluscs that have them, which are found in the mantle cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemorrhage
  • Contusion involves hemorrhage in the alveoli (tiny air-filled sacs responsible for absorbing oxygen), but a hematoma is a discrete clot of blood not interspersed with lung tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The onset of pulmonary hemorrhage is characterized by cough productive of blood (hemoptysis) and worsening of oxygenation leading to cyanosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary Hemorrhage is present in 7 to 10% of neonatal autopsies, but up to 80% of autopsies of very preterm infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infant prematurity is the factor most commonly associated with pulmonary hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemoptysis Pulmonary Hemorrhage Intensive Care Nursery House Staff Manual. (wikipedia.org)
  • artery
  • Since it can be possible to know the alveolar oxygen concentration and the rate of oxygen uptake - but not the oxygen concentration in the pulmonary artery - it is the venous oxygen concentration that is generally employed as a useful approximation in a clinical setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sampling the oxygen concentration in the pulmonary artery is a highly invasive procedure, but fortunately another similar gas can be used instead that obviates this need (DLCO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, people may cough up blood in small amounts, and in very rare cases, the infection may erode into the pulmonary artery or a Rasmussen's aneurysm, resulting in massive bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • Conversely, in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as most land plants, uptake of carbon dioxide and release of both oxygen and water vapour are the main gas-exchange processes occurring during the day. (wikipedia.org)
  • infants
  • Initially described as a fibrotic pulmonary end point following severe respiratory distress syndrome, BPD has considerably evolved with changes in the care of VLBW infants and because of survival of lower gestational age infants than in the original description. (physiology.org)
  • hemoglobin
  • The erythrocytes proceed through the circulatory system, carrying the oxygen in loose combination with hemoglobin and giving it up to the body cells that need it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The oxygen goes into the bloodstream through the hemoglobin. (reference.com)
  • Hemoglobin has an oxygen-binding capacity of 1.34 mL O2 per gram, which increases the total blood oxygen capacity seventy-fold compared to dissolved oxygen in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these tissues, hemoglobin has a non-oxygen-carrying function as an antioxidant and a regulator of iron metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin was discovered by Hünefeld in 1840. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because hemoglobin is a darker red when it is not bound to oxygen (deoxyhemoglobin), as opposed to the rich red color that it has when bound to oxygen (oxyhemoglobin), when seen through the skin it has an increased tendency to reflect blue light back to the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Almost all the oxygen in the blood is bound to hemoglobin, so interfering with this carrier molecule limits oxygen delivery to the periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen is interfered with, a hypoxic state can result. (wikipedia.org)
  • This definition would include oxygen carried by hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • contusion
  • In pathological conditions such as pulmonary contusion, the shunt fraction is significantly greater and even breathing 100% oxygen does not fully oxygenate the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pulmonary contusion, also known as lung contusion, is a bruise of the lung, caused by chest trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike pulmonary laceration, another type of lung injury, pulmonary contusion does not involve a cut or tear of the lung tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pulmonary contusion is usually caused directly by blunt trauma but can also result from explosion injuries or a shock wave associated with penetrating trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the use of explosives during World Wars I and II, pulmonary contusion resulting from blasts gained recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The severity ranges from mild to severe: small contusions may have little or no impact on health, yet pulmonary contusion is the most common type of potentially lethal chest trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary contusion is usually accompanied by other injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although associated injuries are often the cause of death, pulmonary contusion is thought to cause death directly in a quarter to half of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary contusion and laceration are injuries to the lung tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary laceration, in which lung tissue is torn or cut, differs from pulmonary contusion in that the former involves disruption of the macroscopic architecture of the lung, while the latter does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, pulmonary contusion is frequently associated with signs (objective indications) and symptoms (subjective states), including those indicative of the lung injury itself and of accompanying injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • veins
  • In the inner side of each lung, about two-thirds of the distance from its base to its apex, is the hilum , the point at which the bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter the lung. (britannica.com)
  • blood
  • The improved blood movement because of nitric oxide may also boost the supply of oxygen and nutrients to your internet sites that require it. (canariblogs.com)
  • abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary shunting causes the blood supply leaving a shunted area of the lung to have lower levels of oxygen and higher levels of carbon dioxide (i.e., the normal gas exchange does not occur). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical signs and symptoms include direct effects of the physical trauma, such as chest pain and coughing up blood, as well as signs that the body is not receiving enough oxygen, such as cyanosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When lacerations fill with blood, the result is pulmonary hematoma, a collection of blood within the lung tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is part of a comprehensive series of pulmonary function tests to determine the overall ability of the lung to transport gas into and out of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, the mixture has less oxygen than that blood from the healthy lung alone, and so is hypoxemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test gas is held in the lung for about 10 seconds during which time the CO (but not the tracer gas) continuously moves from the alveoli into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • A smaller amount of oxygen is transported in solution in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to generally broadening the diagnostic thresholds, other notable changes from the prior 1994 consensus criteria include discouraging the term "acute lung injury," and defining grades of ARDS severity according to degree of decrease in the oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxic
  • Thus, tumor stromal cells encounter low oxygen conditions and, in particular, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been reported to localize preferentially in the hypoxic areas of tumors ( 4 , 5 , 19 , 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • pathological
  • During migration and invasion of normal and pathological tissues, cells may encounter different oxygen levels, due to poor or altered vascularization, and recent evidence has suggested that chemotaxis is a cell function which may be affected by oxygen availability ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • concentration
  • Low oxygen concentration induces high expression of the CXCL12 receptor, CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4), in different cell types (monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, tumor-associated macrophages, endothelial cells, and cancer cells), which is paralleled by increased chemotactic responsiveness to its specific ligand. (rupress.org)