• shortness of bre
  • Chronic dyspnea is shortness of breath that lasts more than one month. (aafp.org)
  • Chronic dyspnea has been defined as shortness of breath lasting longer than one month. (aafp.org)
  • The most common clinical features of IPF include the following: Age over 50 years Dry, non-productive cough on exertion Progressive exertional dyspnea (shortness of breath with exercise) Dry, inspiratory bibasilar "velcro-like" crackles on auscultation (a crackling sound in the lungs during inhalation similar to Velcro being torn apart slowly, heard with a stethoscope). (wikipedia.org)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is a feeling like one cannot breathe well enough. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congestive heart failure frequently presents with shortness of breath with exertion, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pneumothorax presents typically with pleuritic chest pain of acute onset and shortness of breath not improved with oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, the fluid enters the air spaces in the lungs (pulmonary edema) reduces the amount of oxygen that can enter the blood, and causes shortness of breath (dyspnea) or enters pleural space by transudation (pleural effusion which also causes dyspnea), which is the best indicator of estimating central venous pressure is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • 2 ] Because many advanced cancers spread to the thorax, symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, chest pain, or palpitations often present a challenge in sorting out the likely cause of the problem and developing appropriate interventions. (cancer.gov)
  • This leads to persistent air leakage into the chest and worsens the symptoms of dyspnea already caused by COPD. (springer.com)
  • Patients' descriptions of the sensation of dyspnea may be helpful, but associated symptoms and risk factors, such as smoking, chemical exposures, and medication use, should also be considered. (aafp.org)
  • Central nervous system oxygen toxicity manifests as symptoms such as visual changes (especially tunnel vision), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), nausea, twitching (especially of the face), behavioural changes (irritability, anxiety, confusion), and dizziness. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxemia
  • Patients who are receiving oxygen therapy for hypoxemia following an acute illness or hospitalization should not routinely have a prescription renewal for continued oxygen therapy without a physician's re-assessment of the patient's condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • anorexia
  • Evidence-based recommendations have been published describing various approaches to the problems of cancer-related fatigue, anorexia, depression, and dyspnea. (cancer.gov)
  • intensity
  • Dyspnea is a multidimensional respiratory sensation characterized by distinct components: sensorial (intensity, quality) and affective (anxiety, fear). (ersjournals.com)
  • 1 A consensus statement from the American Thoracic Society defines dyspnea as a "subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity. (aafp.org)
  • The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", and recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, and its burden or impact on activities of daily living. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Chlorine is a strong oxidizing element causing the hydrogen to split from water in moist tissue, resulting in nascent oxygen and hydrogen chloride that cause corrosive tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Excessively high concentrations can cause oxygen toxicity such as lung damage or result in respiratory failure in those who are predisposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher oxygen concentrations also increase the risk of fires, particularly while smoking, and without humidification can also dry out the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has a major impact on the V/Q ratio: apex of lung - higher base of lung - lower In a subject standing in orthostatic position (upright) the apex of the lung shows higher V/Q ratio, while at the base of the lung the ratio is lower but nearer to the optimal value for reaching adequate blood oxygen concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic effects of breathing in oxygen at high concentrations Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen (O 2) at increased partial pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In unusual circumstances, effects on other tissues may be observed: it is suspected that during spaceflight, high oxygen concentrations may contribute to bone damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • supplementation
  • According to the enrollment criteria, these patients must have already received treatment for two weeks consisting of the following: thoracostomy tube placement at the time of admission, guideline-recommended antibiotics for their specific conditions, patient-specific cardiopulmonary and nutritional support, and oxygen supplementation. (springer.com)
  • perception
  • Oxygen therapy ( O 2 th ) improves the 6MWT walk distance (6MWD), but it is not know its effect on the different component of dyspnea perception in ILD patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of O 2 th on the different components of dyspnea perception in ILD patients with exercise induced hypoxia (EIH). (ersjournals.com)
  • Our hypothesis is that O 2 th would provide a reduction in the affective component of dyspnea and so in the dyspnea perception overall. (ersjournals.com)
  • The perception of dyspnea varies based on behavioral and physiologic responses. (aafp.org)
  • hoarseness
  • Findings a. persistent sore throat b. dyspnea c. dysphagia d. increasing persistent hoarseness e. weight loss f. enlarged cervical lymph nodes 3. (scribd.com)
  • hyperbaric
  • Oxygen can be given in a number of ways including nasal cannula, face mask, and inside a hyperbaric chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocols for avoidance of the effects of hyperoxia exist in fields where oxygen is breathed at higher-than-normal partial pressures, including underwater diving using compressed breathing gases, hyperbaric medicine, neonatal care and human spaceflight. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Treatment involves measures to decrease the oxygen requirement of the heart and efforts to increase blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have incorrectly attributed the effect of hyperventilation to increased oxygen in the blood, not realizing that it is actually due to a decrease in CO2 in the blood and lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The direct consequence of hypopnea (as well as apnea) is that the CO2 in the blood increases and the oxygen level in the patient's blood decrease is proportionate to the severity of the airway obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • alveoli
  • At the dependent region smaller volumes mean the alveoli are more compliant (more distensible) and so capable of wider oxygen exchanges with the external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes, collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment, and seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • However, there are certain situations in which oxygen therapy is known to have a negative impact on a patient's condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels of oxygen
  • High levels of oxygen given to infants causes blindness by promoting overgrowth of new blood vessels in the eye obstructing sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The periods of silence can last 20 seconds or longer and can happen many times each hour, resulting in poor sleep and reduced levels of oxygen in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixtures
  • A particularly important intermediate in the chemical industry, nitric oxide forms in mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen at high temperatures, as found in combustion systems such as internal-combustion piston engines, gas turbines, furnaces, and boilers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has also indicated advantages in using helium-oxygen mixtures in delivery of anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • discomfort
  • At rest and at peak of exercise, subjects were asked to rate 5 different dyspnea components (1:overall, 2:effort, 3:difficult inspiration, 4:difficult expiration, 5:anxiety) and leg discomfort. (ersjournals.com)
  • The other components of dyspnea (2, 3 and 4) and leg discomfort were not affected. (ersjournals.com)
  • blood
  • Ideally, the oxygen provided via ventilation would be just enough to saturate the blood fully. (wikipedia.org)
  • In reality, it will give the impression that one does not need to breathe, while the body is actually experiencing a blood-oxygen level that would normally, and indirectly, invoke a strong dyspnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the exchange of gases between the blood and airspace of the lungs is independent of the movement of gas to and from the lungs, enough oxygen can be delivered to the circulation even if a person is apneic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypopnea is typically defined by a decreased amount of air movement into the lungs and can cause oxygen levels in the blood to drop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disruption in breathing causes a drop in blood oxygen level, which may in turn disrupt the stages of sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daytime hypopnea can also cause a drop in blood oxygen level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining them both gives an overall severity of sleep apnea including sleep disruptions and desaturations (a low level of oxygen in the blood). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Although usually recognised by hyperplastic and proliferative gill lesions, the effects of AGD occur before oxygen transfer across the gill is severely compromised. (wikipedia.org)
  • pressures
  • Each mix is bespoke and is created using gas blending techniques, which often involve the use of booster pumps to achieve typical diving cylinder pressures of 200 bar (2,900 psi) from lower pressure banks of oxygen and helium cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of breathing increased partial pressures of oxygen is hyperoxia, an excess of oxygen in body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system toxicity is caused by short exposure to high partial pressures of oxygen at greater than atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ocular (retinopathic conditions), characterised by alterations to the eyes, occurring when breathing increased pressures of oxygen for extended periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system oxygen toxicity can cause seizures, brief periods of rigidity followed by convulsions and unconsciousness, and is of concern to divers who encounter greater than atmospheric pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric
  • When exposed to oxygen, nitric oxide is converted into nitrogen dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In water, nitric oxide reacts with oxygen and water to form HNO2 or nitrous acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitric oxide reacts with the ozone to produce oxygen and nitrogen dioxide, accompanied with emission of light (chemiluminescence): ·NO + O3 → NO2 + O2 + hν which can be measured with a photodetector. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Oxygen has vasoconstrictive effects on the circulatory system, reducing peripheral circulation and was once thought to potentially increase the effects of stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • This study suggests that the different component of the dyspnea could be differently modified by specific treatment. (ersjournals.com)
  • Oxygen is believed to be the most common treatment given in hospitals in the developed world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen is used as a medical treatment in both chronic and acute cases, and can be used in hospital, pre-hospital or entirely out of hospital, dependent on the needs of the patient and their medical professionals' opinions. (wikipedia.org)
  • enough
  • Static apnea blackout occurs at the surface when a motionless diver holds a breath long enough for the circulating oxygen to fall below that required for the brain to maintain consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this closure is still enough to cause a physiological effect i.e., an oxygen desaturation and/or an increase in breathing effort terminating in arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • protocols
  • Many EMS protocols indicate that oxygen should not be withheld from any patient, while other protocols are more specific or circumspect. (wikipedia.org)