• chemotherapy
  • The role of chemotherapy or radiation therapy in the treatment of granulosa cell tumors remains uncertain because of the lack of prospective randomized trials supporting their roles as adjuvant agents. (appliedradiology.com)
  • For malignant tumours, the surgery may be radical and usually is followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, sometimes by radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The survival rate for germinomatous tumors is higher in part because these tumors are very sensitive to radiation, and they also respond well to chemotherapy. (omicsgroup.org)
  • embryonal
  • It is believed to arise from the ectopic gonadal tissue along the embryonal route of the genital ridge. (urotoday.com)
  • Teratocarcinoma refers to a germ cell tumor that is a mixture of teratoma with embryonal carcinoma , or with choriocarcinoma , or with both. (omicsgroup.org)
  • [ 6 ] This kind of mixed germ cell tumor may be known simply as a teratoma with elements of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or simply by ignoring the teratoma component and referring only to its malignant component: embryonal carcinoma and/or choriocarcinoma. (omicsgroup.org)
  • dysgerminoma
  • Dysgerminoma accounts for less than 1% of ovarian tumors overall. (wow.com)
  • Dysgerminoma occurs in both ovaries in 10% of patients and, in a further 10%, there is microscopic tumor in the other ovary. (wow.com)
  • Abnormal gonads (due to gonadal dysgenesis and androgen insensitivity syndrome ) have a high risk of developing a dysgerminoma. (wow.com)
  • tend
  • They are often suspected of being malignant prior to operation, being solid ovarian tumours that tend to occur most commonly in post menopausal women. (wikipedia.org)
  • these tumors tend to have late recurrencies ( even after 30 years ) Using next generation DNA sequencing, it was discovered that 97% of granulosa cell tumours contain an identical mutation in the FOXL2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • These hereditary cases tend to be younger, often have a multinodular thyroid goiter and there may be a personal or family history of other rare tumors such as pleuropulmonary blastoma, Wilms tumor and cervical rhabdomyosarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovaries
  • These tumors are believed to start in the cells covering the ovaries, though some may form at the Fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • Most dysgerminomas are associated with elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), which is sometimes used as a tumor marker . (wow.com)
  • postmenopausal
  • It typically secretes estrogen, and as a result women with this tumour often present with postmenopausal bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study of 125 patients with juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 78% presented within the first 2 decades of life.3Clinically, these patients typically presentwith signs of hyperestrogenism-precocious puberty in pre- pubertal patients, menstrual irregularities in women of reproductive age, and abnormal uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women. (appliedradiology.com)