• pathogenesis
  • Among the many genes identified was one coding for a novel APEC fimbrial adhesin (Yqi) not described for its role in APEC pathogenesis. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The recent use of classical bacterial genetics for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis has allowed the identification of loci previously not recognized as virulence determinants. (asmscience.org)
  • The study of bacterial pathogenesis has as one of its goals the identification of all determinants that can be targeted for the prevention or treatment of disease. (asmscience.org)
  • The central mechanism of EPEC pathogenesis is a lesion called attaching and effacing (A/E), which is characterized by microvilli destruction, intimate adherence of bacteria to the intestinal epithelium, pedestal formation, and aggregation of polarized actin and other elements of the cytoskeleton at sites of bacterial attachment ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Lipooligosaccharides play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain bacterial infections because they are capable of acting as immunostimulators and immunomodulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many novel sRNAs were identified from Y. pestis grown in vitro and in the infected lungs of mice suggesting they play role in bacterial physiology or pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their contributions to bacterial pathogenesis include providing a crucial nutrient (i.e., iron), regulation of other virulence factors (including exotoxin A and the protease PrpL), supporting the formation of biofilms, and are increasingly recognized for having toxicity themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Comparative genomics reveal specific Polysaccharide Utilization Loci shared between distantly related members of the phylum, either in environmental or gut-associated species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Numerous sRNAs have been identified using both computational analysis and laboratory-based techniques such as Northern blotting, microarrays and RNA-Seq in a number of bacterial species including Escherichia coli, the model pathogen Salmonella, the nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, marine cyanobacteria, Francisella tularensis (the causative agent of tularaemia), Streptococcus pyogenes, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. The results imply that an unbalanced phospholipid composition, rather than the decrease or increase of specific phospholipid species, induces a phospholipid-specific stress signal to which certain regulatory genes respond positively or negatively according to their intrinsic mechanisms. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] S.K.Saha: 'A regulatory mechanism for the balanced synthesis of membrane phospholipid species in Escherichia coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Generally, the bacterial species that divides fastest will be most effective at exploiting resources and effectively occupying ecological niches. (wikipedia.org)
  • These interactions often result in enzymatic activity and/or intra- and inter-species signaling functions that help to maintain a relatively stable collection of bacterial species comprising the oral microbiome. (springer.com)
  • Many bacterial species can utilize inversion to change the expression of certain genes for the benefit of the bacterium during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to this role, pyoverdine has a number of other functions, including regulating virulence, limiting the growth of other bacterial species (and serving as a sort of antimicrobial) by limiting iron availability, and sequestering other metals and preventing their toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • In 1997, I joined a team at the Weatherall Institute for Molecular Medicine, Oxford, dedicated to investigating the mechanisms responsible for surface variability in two bacterial pathogens responsible for meningitis. (le.ac.uk)
  • Identification of bacterial pathogens employed streamlined conventional bacteriologic biochemical and serological algorithms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This deficit is understandable, considering that sites with high diarrheal mortality are typically those with the greatest challenges to performing the technically demanding portfolio of assays and protocols required to identify bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • actin
  • Upon phosphorylation, Tir activates condensation and polymerization of actin filaments under the bacterial cell to form a pedestal-like structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • TspO of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is involved in signal transduction, functioning as a negative regulator of the expression of some photosynthesis genes (PpsR/AppA repressor/antirepressor regulon). (wikipedia.org)
  • rpoS is transcribed in late exponential phase, and RpoS is the primary regulator of stationary phase genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, this locus can be used as a marker for the rapid diagnosis and for tracing the source of this emerging infectious disease. (rupress.org)
  • Though antibiotics underpin important medical advancements in the 20th century, development of resistance against their action to combat bacterial infections is increasingly common in recent years and thus, emerged as one of the greatest threats to human health ( Davies and Davies, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, excess of the enzyme can result in bacterial death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The silent versions of this gene, PilS, can use homologous recombination to combine with parts of the PilE gene and thus create a different phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • operon
  • This was due to a severe transcriptional repression of the flagellar master operon, flhD-flhC.The upstream locus of the flhD coding region required for this repression was identified. (nii.ac.jp)
  • MLST
  • Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. (hindawi.com)
  • adhesion
  • It has also been implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Alignment and phylogenetic analyses performed to ascertain evolutionary relationships revealed that ABPs cluster into at least six distinct, unrelated families (AbpA, AbpB, and four novel ABPs) with no phylogenetic evidence that one group evolved from another, and no single ancestral gene found within each group. (springer.com)
  • infection
  • In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the metabolic changes in HeLa cells upon bacterial infection and made comparison with the results from the cells treated with staurosporine (STS), a well-known apoptosis inducer. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Being associated with mitochondria, FAD lifetimes and redox ratio could indicate heterogeneous mitochondrial function, microenvironment with bacterial infection, and further pathway to cell death. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The redox ratios for both EHEC-infected and STS-treated HeLa cells have been observed and these observations also indicate possible apoptosis induced by bacterial infection. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Ag43, located on the cell surface, is encoded by the Agn43 gene (previously designated as flu) and is important for biofilms and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the FLS2 gene can cause bacterial infection by lack of response to flg22. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In order to identify genetic loci that are associated with this particular resistance phenotype, we employed a Tn 5 -OT182 mutagenesis system in coordination with a replica plating screen to isolate polymyxin B-susceptible mutants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Isogenic mutants were also constructed via allelic exchange and used in complementation analysis studies to further characterize the relative importance of each of the various genetic loci with respect to the polymyxin B resistance phenotype exhibited by B. pseudomallei 1026b. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, Bacteroidetes genomes appear to be highly plastic and frequently reorganized through genetic rearrangements, gene duplications and lateral gene transfers (LGT), a feature that could have driven their adaptation to distinct ecological niches. (frontiersin.org)
  • toxin
  • The reduced size of the Pa genome is associated with a smaller diversity in insecticidal genes such as those encoding the Toxin complexes (Tc's), Makes caterpillars floppy (Mcf) toxins and the Photorhabdus Virulence Cassettes (PVCs). (springer.com)
  • repressor
  • In the usual phase, a promotor sequence promotes the expression of the H2 flagella gene along with a repressor of H1 flagella gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once this promotor sequence is inverted by the hin gene the repressor is turned off as is H2 allowing H1 to be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Alternately, sRNAs may interact with mRNA targets and regulate gene expression by binding to complementary mRNA and blocking transcription, or by unmasking or blocking the ribosome-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some can regulate the virulence genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ompF
  • The translational, not the transcriptional, expression of the ompF gene was inhibited by the enhanced formation of the micF RNA that is antisense to the ompF. (nii.ac.jp)
  • serine
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial chaperone and serine protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) is closely associated with the establishment and progression of several infectious diseases. (paperity.org)
  • regulatory
  • Bacterial sRNAs have a wide variety of regulatory mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that the TspO regulatory pathway works by regulating the efflux of certain tetrapyrrole intermediates of the haem/bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathways in response to the availability of molecular oxygen, thereby causing the accumulation of a biosynthetic intermediate that serves as a corepressor for the regulated genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous bacterial small non-coding RNAs have been identified to play regulatory functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their natural surrounding environment for adaptation and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Eventually, there is vesicle fusion with the cell membrane at a structure called the porosome, in a process called exocytosis, dumping its contents out of the cell's environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell wall consists of an outer triple layer and third dense monolayer in the periplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPS also increases the negative charge of the cell membrane and helps stabilize the overall membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by host antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hydrophobic fatty acid chains anchor the LPS into the bacterial membrane, and the rest of the LPS projects from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • LOS plays a central role in maintaining the integrity and functionality of the outer membrane of the Gram negative cell envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • In 2012, I became a Lecturer and in 2017 was promoted to a Reader in Bacterial Genetics within the newly renamed Department of Genetics and Genome Biology. (le.ac.uk)
  • clinical isolates
  • Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in the eaeA gene result in loss of ability to cause A/E lesions, and is required for full virulence in infected volunteers and animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Discovery of antibiotics revolutionized modern medicine by protecting millions of people from life-threatening bacterial infections ( Ventola, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • degradation
  • Included are those involved in chemotaxis, outer membrane channel function, degradation of aromatic ring compounds, and the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources, in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Recent comparative studies between the genome of Pl TT01 and Y. enterocolitica have highlighted the genes within Pl that are likely to be insecticidal [ 7 ], and here we identify genomic changes associated with the additional selective pressures exerted when Photorhabdus meets the vertebrate immune system for the first time. (springer.com)
  • The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of the strain "26695" consists of about 1.7 million base pairs, with some 1,576 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • insertion
  • Two recombinases encoded by MooV and Piv mediate the precise excision and insertion, respectively, of the insertion element IS492 in the eps locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotor
  • One experiment performed to show involvement of FLS2 in flagellin perception was an ectopic expression of FLS2 using the CaMV 35S gene promotor in one wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plant and two supposed mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants. (wikipedia.org)