• neuronal
  • Both OP6 and OP27 express general neuronal and ORN markers, neurotrophin receptors and after differentiation, express OMP. (ubc.ca)
  • The in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that MBD2 is important in regulating gene expression during olfactory neuronal development. (ubc.ca)
  • Further neurological studies with Caspase 9 antibody in the autosomal dominant progressive disorder Huntington's disease (HD) helped define caspases 2, 6, and 7 downstream pathways as those responsible for selective neuronal death 4 . (novusbio.com)
  • In the second part of the thesis I investigated the presentation of different aversive stimuli (USs) and their underlying neuronal pathways. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Altogether, my results contribute to our understanding of aversive olfactory conditioning, demonstrating previously undescribed behavioral abilities of flies and their neuronal representations. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • odors
  • The specific neural pathway by which 9ODA causes behavioral changes is not yet developed in bees, however research shows olfactory signals from floral odors are integrated to the level of mushroom bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal acquisition, signal transduction, and signal processing.Some dogs have as many as 100 times more ORNs than humans do, producing a correspondingly sharpened ability to detect and discriminate among millions of odors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to ORNs describes a peripheral defect in the pathway, but there are also instances where damage to the processing center in the brain can lead to distorted odors as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • KEGG PATHWAY
  • This model has been automatically generated by KEGGtranslator V2.3.0 (KEGGtranslator: visualizing and converting the KEGG PATHWAY database to various formats. (caltech.edu)
  • axon
  • MBD2-/- neonates have more ORNs, more axon bundles and significantly larger axon bundles and glomeruli, when compared to MBD2+/+ controls for OMP and NCAM staining. (ubc.ca)
  • receptors
  • We find that Gli2, the major Hedgehog pathway transcriptional effector, acts within mouse mammary stromal cells to direct a hormone-responsive niche signaling program by activating expression of factors that regulate epithelial stem cells as well as receptors for the mammatrophic hormones estrogen and growth hormone. (stanford.edu)
  • Characteristics of these stages include: the role of olfactory plume and sniffing, the continuous renewal of Glomerulus receptors throughout the life cycle, and the relationship between the olfactory neuron and the glomerulus, and finally, the synthetic nature of glomerulus coding. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • Moreover, injection of OA into the brain is sufficient to replace sucrose reinforcement (Hammer and Menzel 1998 ), and disruption of OA pathways via RNA interference or pharmacological treatment blocks associative conditioning (Farooqui et al. (springer.com)
  • signals
  • We study how the distribution of such signals is regulated in tissues, how cells perceive and respond to distinct concentrations of signals, and how such signaling pathways arose in evolution. (stanford.edu)
  • Shepherd GM (1994) Discrimination of molecular signals by the olfactory receptor neuron. (els.net)
  • Olfactory systems are tasked with converting the chemical environment into electrical signals that the brain can use to optimize behaviors such as navigating towards resources, finding mates, or avoiding danger. (oxfordre.com)
  • targets
  • cAMP targets an olfactory-specific cyclic-nucleotide gated ion channel (CNG), allowing cations, particularly Na and Ca, to flow down their electrochemical gradients into the cell, depolarizing the ORN. (genome.jp)
  • genes
  • This study sought to determine if MBD2 is involved in ORN development by silencing genes that are no longer needed for ORNs to achieve a mature phenotype. (ubc.ca)
  • antennal lobes
  • Octopaminergic cells extend throughout the brain, including regions important for olfactory learning such as the mushroom bodies (MB), antennal lobes (AL) and subesophageal ganglion (Kreissl et al. (springer.com)
  • gene
  • The bulbectomy paradigm recapitulates ORN developmental events and suggests that MBD2 is important in regulating gene expression during ORN development. (ubc.ca)
  • pheromone
  • Moreover, ORN-to-PN transformations are linear for latency and nonlinear for firing rate, suggesting that latency could be involved in concentration-invariant coding of the pheromone blend and that sensitivity at low concentrations is achieved at the expense of precise encoding at high concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Olfactory receptor AmOR11 specifically is involved in responding to the pheromone/carrier complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of the pheromone/carrier to AmOR11 sends a signal to the brain's primary olfactory centres. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Neurobeachin ( Nbea ) is implicated in vesicle trafficking in the regulatory secretory pathway, but details on its molecular function are currently unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, how these molecular pathways operate and are integrated at the growth cone level to implement predictable morphogenetic changes is not fully understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mori K and Yoshihara Y (1995) Molecular recognition and olfactory processing in the mammalian olfactory system. (els.net)
  • dopamine
  • Parosmia is also a known symptom for Parkinson's disease, though not ubiquitous for patients with it, and although the specific pathway is undetermined, the lack of dopamine has resulted in documented cases of parosmia and phantosmia. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • Together, our data suggest that Psidin plays two independent developmental roles via the acquisition of separate signaling pathways, both of which contribute to the formation of olfactory circuits. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have also generated an in vitro model of ORN development to help us understand ORN developmental events and in particular, MBD2 function. (ubc.ca)
  • Solving these longstanding mysteries not only provides insight into developmental specification of these essential yet inadequately characterized precursors, it addresses a central issue in regeneration: embryonic OE precursors must give rise to adult counterparts that generate ORNs and VRNs throughout life (reviewed by Schwob, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • latency
  • We found that over all their dynamic range, PNs respond with a shorter latency and a higher firing rate than most ORNs. (nih.gov)
  • B) Dose-latency curves of ORNs (blue) and PNs (red) based on median, 90% and 10% quantiles. (nih.gov)
  • nerve
  • Taken together, N. meningitidis is able to pass directly from nasopharynx to meninges through the olfactory nerve system. (jove.com)
  • specific
  • As the axons of the ORNs migrate towards their specific glomeruli they often overshoot into neighboring glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Graziadei GAM and Graziadei PPC (1979) Neurogenesis and neuron regeneration in the olfactory system of mammals. (els.net)
  • signal
  • citation needed] Then it must have a vibrational energy mode compatible with the difference in energies between two energy levels on the receptor, so electrons can travel through the molecule via inelastic electron tunneling, triggering the signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)