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  • populations
  • We found that D . folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. (pnas.org)
  • The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or South Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. (wikipedia.org)
  • As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to other continental populations an understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, population differentiation(Fst) and Principal Components Analyses(PCA) are examined using >200K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry(total 298 subjects). (blogspot.com)
  • For PCA, the first two PCs showed a pattern of relationships that closely followed the geographic distribution of the different East Asian populations.corner groups were JPT, FIL, CAMB and MGL with the CHB forming the center group, and KOR was between CHB and JPT. (blogspot.com)
  • South Indian upper- and lower-caste populations have ∼30% and 10% membership in the inferred European group, respectively. (blogspot.com)
  • The study also includes populations from the Caucasus (Stalskoe and Urkarah) from Daghestan, which group with HGDP Adygei (see Figure S3C) and are clearly (FRAPPE analysis in Figure 4, reproduced top left) transitional (as mentioned in my previous post ) between European and Indian Caucasoids, although quite clearly more on the European side. (blogspot.com)
  • All individuals are accurately classified into continental groups using a model-based clustering algorithm, but between closely related populations, genetic and self-classifications conflict for some individuals. (blogspot.com)
  • The genetic origins of Japanese populations have been controversial. (blogspot.com)
  • In this report, we aimed to infer the origin of Jomon and to estimate its contribution to Japanese by fitting an admixture model with missing data from Jomon to a genome-wide data from 94 worldwide populations. (blogspot.com)
  • Interesting that in these tree studies, it always appears that Native American and NE Asian populations split off first (from Indian populations etc. (blogspot.com)
  • [ citation needed ] (which is more accurate than this one), there were also diagonal lines between the populations, e.g. between African H. erectus and Archaic Asians and between Asian H. erectus and Archaic Africans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the influence of Howells, many other anthropologists and biologists have confused multiregionalism with polygenism i.e. separate or multiple origins for different populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show here that both continental and sub-continental populations can be readily distinguished and that admixed populations can be examined in the context of the contributions of putative parental populations. (blogspot.com)
  • In contrast, the current study using diallelic AIMs supports the conclusion that the continental population groups are relatively discrete and that such results are not due to limited sampling and exclusion of admixed populations. (blogspot.com)
  • This cluster was the predominant group in the South Asian population for each of the South Asian subjects and was present in the other populations only in small percentages. (blogspot.com)
  • Similarly, the triangle plot descriptions of the different populations (Fig. 3), shows not only the clear separation of each of the continental populations but also the South Asian population from each of the other populations (Fig. 3c). (blogspot.com)
  • Several case-control genetic studies have been focused in samples of the main ethnic groups, but little is known about the distribution of risk polymorphisms in current populations with accurate ethnic and/or geographic origins. (blogspot.com)
  • most haplogroups are typical of modern East Asian populations, but intriguingly, many different Western Eurasian clades were also identified, with a particular high incidence of H (~8.0%), the most common haplogroup in Europe. (blogspot.com)
  • Here, we present population structure results from compiled datasets after merging with the Human Genome Diversity Project and the Population Reference Sample studies, which consisted of 146 non-Jewish Middle Easterners (Druze, Bedouin and Palestinian), 30 northern Africans (Mozabite from Algeria), 1547 Europeans, and 653 individuals from other African, Asian, Latin American, and Oceanian populations. (blogspot.com)
  • In everyday life, many societies classify populations into groups based on phenotypical traits and impressions of probable geographic ancestry and cultural identity-these are the groups usually called "races" in countries like the United States, Brazil, and South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because all populations are genetically diverse, and because there is a complex relation between ancestry, genetic makeup and phenotype, and because racial categories are based on subjective evaluations of the traits, there is no specific gene that can be used to determine a person's race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical practitioners also sometimes argue that racial categories can be used successfully as proxies to assess risk of those different heritable illnesses that occur with different frequencies among populations of different geographic ancestries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, some human populations contain far more genetic diversity than others, which is consistent with the likely African origin of modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long and Kittles' objection is also methodological: according to them the FST is based on a faulty underlying assumptions that all populations contain equally genetic diverse members and that continental groups diverged at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarich and Miele have also argued that estimates of genetic difference between individuals of different populations understate differences between groups because they fail to take into account human diploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • state: "Historical contacts-for example, under Alexander the Great or during the ancient Minoan civilization-may provide an explanation for the common ancestry of disease mutations in these ethnically diverse populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton, 1994), Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza grouped Greeks with other European and Mediterranean populations based on 120 loci (view MDS plot). (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, Afro-Asian populations have been marginalized as a result of human migration and social conflict. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common occurrence of the mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C, and D among eastern Asian and Amerindian populations has long been recognized, along with the presence of Haplogroup X. As a whole, the greatest frequency of the four Amerindian associated haplogroups occurs in the Altai-Baikal region of southern Siberia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Europeans
  • Pigmentation is one of the more obvious forms of variation in humans, particularly in Europeans where one sees more within group variation in hair and eye pigmentation than in the rest of the world. (blogspot.com)
  • admixture
  • And, there were probably older, pre-Neolithic, episodes of admixture, as well, when different groups of modern humans expanded across the globa and mixed with older groups of modern humans, or, as it seems increasingly likely, with archaic humans as well. (blogspot.com)
  • This result was consistently observed in all analyses performed at k =5 using either the linkage or admixture models applied by the STRUCTURE program and was observed for all individuals that included members with diverse language dialects and states of Indian origin (see Materials and methods). (blogspot.com)
  • Analysis using a Bayesian clustering algorithm (STRUCTURE) showed grouping of individuals with similar ethnic identity without any identifier other than the AIMs genotyping and showed admixture proportions that clearly distinguished different individuals of mixed ancestry. (blogspot.com)
  • As we all know, there are morphologically different groups of people who live in different areas, though those differences are blurring due to recent innovations in transportation that have led to more admixture between human groups. (andrewsullivan.com)
  • Whites
  • this is much higher than the percentile of non-Hispanic Whites, proving that Asian Americans suffer from a tremendous wealth gap when compared among each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although once you factor country of origin and the data of each specific sub group of Asian you'll find many of these sub groups have average median incomes lower than both the U.S. average and non-Hispanic Whites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first test showing differences in IQ test results between different population groups in the US was the tests of United States Army recruits in World War I. In the 1920s groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon whites due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mexican American youth are also much more likely to be in blue collar/working poor families than whites, Asians or even African Americans. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Despite
  • By analyzing the variation segregating among 241 mite sequences isolated from 70 human hosts, we showed that hosts with different regional ancestries harbor distinct lineages of mites and that these associations can persist despite generations spent in a new geographic region. (pnas.org)
  • Despite these factors, a 2014 report from the Census Bureau reported that 12% of Asian Americans were living below the poverty line, while only 10.1% of non-Hispanic White Americans live below the poverty line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although individual samples cannot be reliably classified into their collection of origin, the groups are statistically distinguishable despite their high similarity (FST = 0.0005, n.s. (blogspot.com)
  • Despite this, multiregionalism is still confused with polygenism, or Coon's model of racial origins, from which Wolpoff and his colleagues have distanced themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • haplogroups
  • 2014) "rapid diversification process of K-M526 likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q." The origins of haplogroup R1 remain unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA
  • However, the knowledge of origin of Jomon and its contribution to the genetic pool of contemporary Japanese is still limited, albeit the extensive studies using mtDNA and Y chromosomes. (blogspot.com)
  • formal
  • Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to Asian in common usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In less formal contexts, the term Asian often does not include South Asian people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethnicity
  • During his debate with Wade, anthropologist Agustín Fuentes pointed out that "Wade uses cluster, population, group, race, sub-race, ethnicity in a range of ways with few concrete definitions, and occasionally interchangeably throughout the book. (andrewsullivan.com)
  • immigrants
  • Jomon, developed independently in Japanese islands for more than 10,000 years until the isolation was ended with the influxes of continental immigrants about 2,000 years ago. (blogspot.com)
  • Statistics Sweden uses the term 'Asian' to refer to immigrants of Asian background from all Asian countries, including the Middle East. (wikipedia.org)
  • African
  • One source even quoted as saying that some Asian ethnic groups "have poverty rates that rival the African-American poverty rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The African, East/Southeast Asian, European, and Indian individuals are correctly assigned to their self-identified continental groups without exception. (blogspot.com)
  • Southeast Asians (Iban, Cambodians, and Vietnamese) have ∼10% membership in the inferred Indian cluster, and the African Hema cluster shares ∼15% membership with the inferred European cluster. (blogspot.com)
  • Chris Stringer, a leading proponent of the more mainstream recent African origin theory, debated Multiregionalists such as Wolpoff and Thorne in a series of publications throughout the late 1980s and 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was also the first (as far as we know) who has European and African ancestry. (nautil.us)
  • No sub-Saharan African genes were observed in this population, therefore, non-Caucasoid maternal ancestry in Greece is very low, as elsewhere in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afro-Asians or African-Asians (also sometimes Blasians or Black Asians) are persons of mixed African and Asian ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Thus, continental ancestry allows for more genetically accurate descriptors. (nautil.us)
  • Another favorite approach is to cite the fact that all humans are 99.9 percent genetically identical and that no group of humans has a gene (i.e., a coded-for protein) that another group lacks. (nautil.us)
  • allele
  • Utilizing inferred allele frequencies of the Jomon population, we further showed the Paleolithic contingent in Japanese had a Northeast Asia origin. (blogspot.com)
  • Americans
  • Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once country of birth and other demographic factors are taken into account, a portion of the sub-groups that make up Asian Americans are much more likely than non-Hispanic White Americans to live in poverty. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are major disparities that exist among Asian Americans when specific ethnic groups are examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, there are many sub groups of Asian Americans who suffer in terms of education with some sub groups showing a high rate of dropping out of school or lacking a college education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chinese Americans, which includes American-born Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Chinese ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is a further subgroup of Asian Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1.2% of the total U.S. population as of 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of haplogroup R1 among Indigenous Americans groups is a matter of controversy. (wikipedia.org)
  • peoples
  • For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Eurominority.eu map (the European Union) Peoples of the World includes some diasporas and underrepresented/stateless ethnic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, two groups exhibit large concentrations of the Q-M242 mutation, the Ket (93.8%) and the Selkup (66.4%) peoples. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the US Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. (wikipedia.org)
  • defines
  • Individuals whose Y-chromosomes possess all the mutations on internal nodes of the Y-DNA tree down to and including M207 (which defines Haplogroup R) but which display neither the M173 mutation that defines haplogroup R1 nor the M479 mutation that defines Haplogroup R2 are categorized as belonging to group R* (R-M207). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some islands of Polynesian origin are outside the general triangle that geographically defines the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower caste
  • In particular, upper-caste individuals from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh form one defined group, lower-caste individuals from these two states form another, and the tribal Irula samples form a third. (blogspot.com)
  • immigrant groups
  • Their socioeconomic disadvantages and dismal school performance are particularly striking in California, where most other contemporary immigrant groups are notable for just the opposite. (ucdavis.edu)
  • human
  • It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how human groups are biologically related to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degree of human genetic variation is a little different depending upon the gene type studied, but in general it is common to claim that ~85% of genetic variation is found within groups, ~6-10% between groups within the same continent and ~6-10% is found between continental groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimate
  • This variation is usually calculated using Sewall Wright's fixation index (FST), which is an estimate of between to within group variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Wu's variant only applies the Multiregional hypothesis to the East Asian fossil record which is popular among Chinese scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polynesian
  • Although they likely migrated to Australia through Southeast Asia they are not demonstrably related to any known Asian or Polynesian population. (wikipedia.org)
  • An island group with strong Polynesian cultural traits outside of this great triangle is Rotuma, situated north of Fiji. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are the islands and island groups, either nations or overseas territories of former colonial powers, that are of native Polynesian culture or where archaeological evidence indicates Polynesian settlement in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population Structure
  • 2002) indicating that analysis of population structure using a non-hierarchical clustering algorithm can separate population groups based on DNA polymorphisms. (blogspot.com)
  • shorter
  • The length of each run is determined partly by the number of generations since the common ancestor: offspring of cousin marriages have long runs of homozygosity (ROH), while the numerous shorter tracts relate to shared ancestry tens and hundreds of generations ago. (blogspot.com)
  • coastal
  • I asked this before: wouldn't this contradict a coastal migration for NE Asians, and be more in line with one either west of the Himalayas, or perhaps Myanmar/adjacent China? (blogspot.com)
  • specific
  • Overall, the study demonstrates that AIMs can provide a useful adjunct to forensic medicine, pharmacogenomics and disease studies in which major ancestry or ethnic affiliation might be linked to specific outcomes. (blogspot.com)
  • Respondents can also report their specific ancestry, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Issues specific to this group include having no documentation of their births, since not having been born in the local hospital spared their lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • vast
  • If Mexican American youth were just another in the vast array of new second generation groups, there would be only modest cause for concern regarding their below average achievement and future prospects. (ucdavis.edu)