• trigeminal nerve
  • Inhalation of irritating substances leads to activation of the trigeminal nerve, triggering protective reflexes that include apnea or sneezing. (pnas.org)
  • Functional studies indicate that bitter substances applied to the nasal epithelium activate the trigeminal nerve and evoke changes in respiratory rate. (pnas.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that peptide-containing [substance P/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] fibers of the trigeminal nerve, presumably polymodal nociceptors, provide a dense innervation to much of the respiratory epithelium ( 4 ), and end freely just below the level of the apical tight junctional complex ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unfortunately, many clinical tests confound the function of the olfactory nerve with that of the trigeminal nerve ('pungency' as from ammonia). (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • A brush cell is a microvilli-bearing columnar cell with its basal surface in contact with afferent nerve endings of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) and is specialized for transduction of general sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: tri-geminus meaning triplets), and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory ganglia exist for nerves with sensory function: V, VII, VIII, IX, X. There are also parasympathetic ganglia, which are part of the autonomic nervous system for cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X. The trigeminal ganglia of the trigeminal nerve (V) occupies a space in the dura mater called Trigeminal cave. (wikipedia.org)
  • The turbinates are enriched with airflow pressure and temperature-sensing nerve receptors (linked to the "trigeminal" nerve route, the fifth cranial nerve), allowing for tremendous erectile capabilities of nasal congestion and decongestion, in response to the weather conditions and changing needs of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triggered by the flow of the air, the pressure of the air in the nose, and the quality of the air, impulses from the nasal mucosa are transmitted by the trigeminal nerve to the breathing centres in the brainstem, and the generated response is transmitted to the bronchi, the intercostal muscles, and the diaphragm. (wikipedia.org)
  • placode
  • In the head surface ectoderm of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), Pax6 expression is restricted to the olfactory placode, the eye placode and the anterior hypophysis ( Walther and Gruss, 1991 ), indicating its function in the establishment of these cell types. (biologists.org)
  • The olfactory placode forms as two thickenings of non-neural region of embryonic ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, the olfactory placode derives from an anterior portion of the neural tube, ~9-9.5 days into development and not long after the closure of the neural plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of the olfactory placode requires the presence underlying neural crest-derived mesenchymal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specification of the olfactory placode tissue involves signaling of multiple gene networks, beginning with signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), retinoic acid (RA), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), specifically FGF8. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurogenesis
  • Studies dating back to the 1990s have begun researching the olfactory system of mammals, rats in particular, to gain a greater understanding of axonal regeneration and neurogenesis, and the possible implementation of these cells at the site of the spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • smell
  • Vestigial features of modern whales include: very small pelvic and back leg bones embedded within their bodies, olfactory nerves even though whales have no sense of smell, vestiges of ears designed to hear in air and a vestigial diaphram. (blogspot.com)
  • Toothed whales do not have a sense of smell, but baleen whales do have some olfactory nerves. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • By the way, you'll be happy to know the smell is gone now, or my olfactory nerves have been killed dead. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • At levels higher than this, the poisonous gas will start to degrade the olfactory nerves, making it impossible to smell. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broca named the limbic lobe in 1878, identifying it with the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, and associating it with the sense of smell - Treviranus having earlier noted that, between species, the size of the parahippocampal gyrus varies with the size of the olfactory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • OECs
  • Excitingly, OECs can promote nerve repair when transplanted into the damaged spinal cord. (redorbit.com)
  • Dr Clare Baker, from the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, lead author of the study, said: "In theory, one should be able to purify OECs from a patient's nose and transplant them into the damaged spinal cord to promote nerve repair, without any fear of graft rejection. (redorbit.com)
  • The new research, however, reveals a different origin for OECs that may enable scientists in the future to produce them in large quantities from adult stem cells. (redorbit.com)
  • In order to determine the origin of OECs, the scientists tagged embryonic neural crest cells with 'green fluorescent protein' (GFP), so that only neural crest cells and their descendants glowed green under ultraviolet light. (redorbit.com)
  • tissue
  • Details of structure of components of nerve tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Due to the limited availability of donor tissue and functional recovery in autologous nerve grafting, neural tissue engineering research has focused on the development of bioartificial nerve guidance conduits as an alternative treatment, especially for large defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether the conduit is in the form of a biologic tube, synthetic tube or tissue-engineered conduit, it should facilitate neurotropic and neurotrophic communication between the proximal and distal ends of the nerve gap, block external inhibitory factors, and provide a physical guidance for axonal regrowth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most basic objective of a nerve guidance conduit is to combine physical, chemical, and biological cues under conditions that will foster tissue formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue-engineered nerve guidance conduits are a combination of many elements: scaffold structure, scaffold material, cellular therapies, neurotrophic factors and biomimetic materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superstructure of a conduit or scaffold is important for simulating in vivo conditions for nerve tissue formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the terminal nerve projects to the medial and lateral septal nuclei and the preoptic areas, all of which are involved in regulating sexual behavior in mammals, as well as a 1987 study finding that mating in hamsters is reduced when the terminal nerve is severed. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull
  • If the brain is carefully removed from the skull the nerves are typically visible in their numeric order, with the exception of the last, CN XII, which appears to emerge rostrally to (above) CN XI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves have paths within and outside the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many holes in the skull called "foramina" by which the nerves can exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skull consists of two parts, of different embryological origin-the neurocranium and the facial skeleton (also called the membraneous viscerocranium). (wikipedia.org)
  • axonal
  • A nerve guidance conduit (also referred to as an artificial nerve conduit or artificial nerve graft, as opposed to an autograft) is an artificial means of guiding axonal regrowth to facilitate nerve regeneration and is one of several clinical treatments for nerve injuries. (wikipedia.org)