• distance
  • In strong predictable flow (short distance thrush flights), vector orientation adjusted to flow on departure is nearly optimal, whereas for unpredictable flow (inter-continental snipe flights), only goal orientation was near-optimally reliable and efficient. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The time-minimizing orientation strategy to reach a goal in unpredictable flow has been proposed to involve minimizing the remaining distance to the goal in a sequence of steps, resulting in an increased degree of compensation on approach to the goal [ 12 , 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)