• genomic
  • Using comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis, researchers found that CRISPR-Cas variants are associated with distinct types of MGEs such as transposable elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences, colloquially known as jumping genes because of their ability to replicate to new genomic locations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowd sourced scientific endeavours such as DNA.land at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, only one gene was encoding for an alcohol dehydrogenase converting acetone into isopropanol, suggesting a single genomic event occurred on this strain to produce isopropanol. (deepdyve.com)
  • The aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria Nitrosomonas eutropha C91 contains genomic islands that house genes important in providing resistance to heavy metals and oxidizing nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of genome evolution involves multiple fields such as structural analysis of the genome, the study of genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polyploidy, and comparative genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic changes may lead to both increases or decreases of genomic complexity due to adaptive genome streamlining and purifying selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • This review considers strategies for interfering with Plasmodium development in the mosquito, together with issues related to the transfer of laboratory-acquired knowledge to the field, such as minimization of transgene fitness load to the mosquito, driving genes through populations, avoiding the selection of resistant strains, and how to produce and release populations of males only. (biologists.org)
  • In various embodiments, the strains have one or more of equal or improved growth rate, transformation efficiency, protein expression, DNA production, DNA yield and/or DNA quality compared to the parental strain and commercially available strains. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • More specifically, the present invention relates to genetically modified strains of microorganisms and the use thereof for the production of commercial products, such as recombinant proteins, nucleic acids, such as DNA, and amino acids. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Further, many bacterial strains produce toxins that must be purified away from the target protein being produced and some strains can produce, by coincidence, native proteins that are close in size to the target protein, thereby making size separation ineffective for the purification process. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • These resistant strains may or may not possess the mecA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • McClintock also showed that gene mutations could be reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we used a DNA barcoding approach to generate the genotype-to-fitness map for adaptation-driving mutations from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae population experimentally evolved by serial transfer under limiting glucose. (stanford.edu)
  • Our large sample size and precision of measurement allowed us to determine that there are significant differences in fitness between mutations in different genes, between different paralogs, and even between different classes of mutations within the same gene. (stanford.edu)
  • Recently, experiments have indicated that HGT might be more responsible for more genetic variation than simple accumulation of mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • single stranded
  • Instead, helitrons replicate and move around the genome using a "rolling circle" mechanism, where a single stranded piece of donor DNA rolls in to a circular intermediate and inserts itself in to a target elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative DNA secondary structures can arise from single-stranded DNA when duplex DNA is unwound during DNA processes such as transcription, resulting in the regulation or perturbation of these processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome size is usually measured in base pairs (or bases in single-stranded DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Then, the DNA sequence can be inserted back to a random location of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it was not until the late 1960s that bacterial geneticists recognized the important role of insertion sequence elements as a major source of mutation in bacteria and their more general role as agents of genetic change. (mbl.edu)
  • This systems creates duplicates of the gene sequence in the genome each time the TE moves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insertional inactivation focuses on suppressing the expression of a gene by disrupting its sequence with an insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next year, Fred Sanger completed the first DNA-genome sequence: Phage Φ-X174, of 5386 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: We present the full genome sequence of Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423, providing a complete genetic background of this strain. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the last 2 decades, PCR- and sequence-based techniques, particularly whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have significantly furthered our knowledge of the genetic diversity, evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenicity of this once enigmatic pathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • recombination
  • Recombination is a much more powerful mutation way for DNA to change. (panspermia.org)
  • When two strings of similar DNA line up with each other and swap sections, it's called homologous recombination . (panspermia.org)
  • When shorter pieces of similar DNA line up to initiate a swap of longer, dissimilar pieces (of which the shorter pieces can be part), that's called site-specific recombination . (panspermia.org)
  • While recombination moves whole blocks of genetic instructions within a cell, other processes move whole blocks of genetic information from one bacterium to another bacterium of a different kind. (panspermia.org)
  • Recombination can lead to both DNA loss or gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the addition of more and more repeats to these regions the plants increase the possibility of developing new virulence factors through mutation and other forms of genetic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that genes
  • McClintock found that genes could not only move, but they could also be turned on or off due to certain environmental conditions or during different stages of cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • Thus, if one is to understand genome structure and its evolution, one must understand transposable elements. (mbl.edu)
  • Our research teams explore the basic science questions of how mobile genetic elements accomplish their movement and how that movement affects genome evolution. (mbl.edu)
  • In the process of addressing these questions we may also gain insights into related phenomena such as retroviral infection, antibody gene formation, RNA splicing, protein splicing, the evolution of sexual reproduction, and the lateral dispersal of transposable elements in the biosphere. (mbl.edu)
  • Edward C. Holmes, "The Evolution of Endogenous Viral Elements" [ abstract ], doi:10.1016/j.chom.2011.09.002, p 368-377 v 10, Cell Host & Microbe , 20 Oct 2011. (panspermia.org)
  • Transient Hypermutagenesis Accelerates the Evolution of Legume Endosymbionts following Horizontal Gene Transfer" [ html ], doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001942, 12(9): e1001942, PLoS Biol , 2 Sep 2014. (panspermia.org)
  • HGT is an important factor in the evolution of many organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • May we not feel that in the virus, in their merging with the cellular genome and their re-emerging from them, we observe processes which, in the course of evolution, have created the succesful genetic patterns that underlie all living things? (panspermia.org)
  • In this chapter, we discuss the roles of gene transfer on the origins, evolution, and function of photosynthetic organelles in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. (springer.com)
  • Neutral Theory, Transposable Elements, and Eukaryotic Genome Evolution. (mbl.edu)
  • In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. (plos.org)
  • Adaptations are the result of Evolution and allow an organism to live in new environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general trends of bacterial evolution indicate that bacteria started as free-living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another mechanism of genome evolution is provided by transduction whereby bacteriophages introduce new DNA into a bacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E. coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms, such as methanogens or sulphate-reducing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • Co-transfer of complex phenotypic traits with mutagenesis determinants might help successful horizontal gene transfer. (panspermia.org)
  • This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1) traits vary among individuals with respect to morphology, physiology, and behaviour (phenotypic variation), 2) different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction (differential fitness), and 3) traits can be passed from generation to generation (heritability of fitness). (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with host organisms. (plos.org)
  • host
  • In addition, they can also rearrange genes in the host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, after conversion of retroviral RNA into DNA inside a host cell, the newly produced retroviral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relocation of genes from the intracellular symbiont into the host genome is critical to the origin of organelles by endosymbiosis, and an increasingly large body of evidence indicates that acquisition of genes from external sources can influence the organelle function to a large extent. (springer.com)
  • Alters Gene Expression in the Brain of the Host Mollusc Haliotis Asinina FEBS Letters. (jove.com)
  • This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. (jove.com)
  • M. leprae lives and replicates inside of a host and due to this arrangement it does not have a need for many of the genes it once carried which allowed it to live and prosper outside the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repeat-rich regions contain genes coding for host interaction proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host with a very small syringe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrotransposons
  • Retrotransposons are commonly grouped into three main orders: TEs with long terminal repeats (LTRs), which encode reverse transcriptase, similar to retroviruses Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs, LINE-1s, or L1s), which encode reverse transcriptase but lack LTRs, and are transcribed by RNA polymerase II Short interspersed nuclear elements do not encode reverse transcriptase and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III [Note : Retroviruses can also be considered TEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Intron- and intein-encoded proteins promote movement of the elements to new sites on DNA by both DNA- and RNA-based reactions. (mbl.edu)
  • During interphase, the nuclear DNA is organized in a dispersed network of chromatin , which is a complex consisting of nucleic acid and basic proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is not an uncommon occurrence for normal bacterial proteins to adversely affect the production or the purification of a desired protein product from an engineered bacteria. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • We also describe a complex set of genes encoding enzymes that can break down proteins and other molecules, perhaps reflecting the range of organisms with which B. xylophilus interacts during its life cycle. (plos.org)
  • novel
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods have resulted in novel perspectives on genetic relationships that previously have only been estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Mutation is the mechanism of genetic change that we hear the most about. (panspermia.org)
  • The rare exception is the back-mutation, which merely undoes the damage of a previous mutation and restores the affected strand of DNA to its original condition. (panspermia.org)
  • mutation and gene migration create variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Conventional genetically engineered mouse models enable the study of tumor growth in vivo, but they are neither readily scalable nor sufficiently quantitative to unravel the magnitude and mode of action of many tumor-suppressor genes. (stanford.edu)
  • A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). (wikipedia.org)
  • This should not be confused with the more general way in which "GMO" is used to classify genetically altered organisms, as typically GMOs are organisms whose genetic makeup has been altered without the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen made the first genetically modified organism (GMO) in 1973. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, the ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae became the first genetically modified organism to be released into the environment when a strawberry field and a potato field in California were sprayed with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • introns
  • Dr. Belfort studies mobile introns and inteins, elements that interrupt genes and that are removed by RNA and protein splicing, respectively. (mbl.edu)