• whole organism
  • Metabolic rate scales with the mass of an organism of a given species according to Kleiber's law where B is whole organism metabolic rate (in watts or other unit of power), M is organism mass (in kg), and Bo is a mass-independent normalization constant (given in a unit of power divided by a unit of mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to cell-autonomous changes that drive a cancer cell to proliferate and contribute to tumorigenesis, it has also been observed that alterations in whole-organism metabolism such as obesity are associated with heightened risks for a variety of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Mechanisms for this include simple dilution (an egg contains on average 200,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a healthy human sperm was reported to contain on average 5 molecules ), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the male genital tract, in the fertilized egg, and, at least in a few organisms, failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Water-based approaches are not always an accurate estimation of the concentration of a bioaccumulating chemical in an organism, nor does the water-based approach incorporate the multiple routes of exposure of an organism to a toxicant and the additive effects across these routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of tissue residue allows an investigator to: account for multiple routes of exposure, account for toxicokinetic differences between species, account for factors that alter bioavailability and potentially address exposure of an organism to a chemical mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue residue also has the ability to represent temporal and spatial exposure or an organism, as well as clarify the cause-effect relationship of chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • An organism that has a high thermal optimum may still be able to function in this environment, while one with a lower thermal optimum may have its metabolic processes shut down during the drying period of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermal
  • Fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by an abrupt change in water temperature (either a rapid increase or decrease) known as "thermal shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermal pollution may also increase the metabolic rate of aquatic animals, as enzyme activity, resulting in these organisms consuming more food in a shorter time than if their environment were not changed. (wikipedia.org)
  • An organism may be confined to a limited range of habitats due to the population's thermal optima, while another population may have a different range of habitats open to it due to a different thermal optima for its biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic rate
  • http://physrev.physiology.org/content/87/4/1175.full http://www.discoverymedicine.com/S-J-Olshansky/2009/07/25/what-determines-longevity-metabolic-rate-or-stability http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/19/20/2399.full http://www.immortalhumans.com/the-longevity-secret-for-tortoises-is-held-in-their-low-metabolism-rate/ http://www.asiaone.com/Health/News/Story/A1Story20090613-148261.html Speakman JR, Selman C, McLaren JS, Harper EJ (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is an extension of Kleiber's law and posits that the metabolic rate of organisms is the fundamental biological rate that governs most observed patterns in ecology. (wikipedia.org)
  • MTE is based on an interpretation of the relationships between body size, body temperature, and metabolic rate across all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, specific metabolic rate (SMR, in Watts/kg) is given by S M R = ( B / M ) = b o M − 1 / 4 e − E k T {\displaystyle SMR=(B/M)=b_{o}M^{-1/4}e^{-{\frac {E}{k\,T}}}} Hence SMR for large organisms are lower than small organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these assumes energy or resource transport across the external surface area of three-dimensional organisms is the key factor driving the relationship between metabolic rate and body size. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • mtDNA is highly conserved, and its relatively slow mutation rates (compared to other DNA regions such as microsatellites) make it useful for studying the evolutionary relationships-phylogeny-of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Further provided are methods for modulating or altering metabolism in a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius. (osti.gov)
  • In T. tenax, a number of metabolic pathways allow the cell to select a mode of metabolism depending on the energy requirements of the cell (depending, for example, on the cell's developmental or growth stage). (wikipedia.org)
  • smaller
  • The theory was originally created by Max Rubner in 1908 after his observation that larger animals outlived smaller ones, and that the larger animals had slower metabolisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • These organs or structures use specific routes to expel a drug from the body, these are termed elimination pathways: Urine, Tears, Perspiration Saliva Respiration Milk Faeces Bile Drugs are excreted from the kidney by glomerular filtration and by active tubular secretion following the same steps and mechanisms as the products of intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Circadian rhythms are conserved across a wide variety of organisms, from Drosophila (fruit flies) to humans. (medindia.net)
  • BV is commonly used in nutrition science in many mammalian organisms, and is a relevant measure in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Although, the link between the cancer and metabolism was observed in early days of cancer research by Otto Heinrich Warburg, which is also known as Warburg hypothesis, but not much of the substantial research was done until the late 1990s because of the lack of in vitro tumor models and creating environments that lack oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • We are proud to present a wide-ranging program, which covers a number of scientific aspects of model organisms in human diseases including developmental biology, autoimmunity, inflammation, metabolism, neurobiology and cancer. (biokemi.org)
  • MTE is part of a larger set of theory known as metabolic scaling theory that attempts to provide a unified theory for the importance of metabolism in driving pattern and process in biology from the level of cells all the way to the biosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • The plasma half-life or half life of elimination is the time required to eliminate 50% of the absorbed dose of a drug from an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of metal ions in biological systems refers to the incorporation of metallic ions into living organisms and how it has changed over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • In particular the BV value of a food varies depending on its preparation and the recent diet of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small living beings that work on that decomposition chain are themselves part of the soil organic matter, and form a food web of organisms that prey upon each other and are preyed upon. (wikipedia.org)
  • overall
  • Clearance can be determined on an overall, organism level («systemic clearance») or at an organ level (hepatic clearance, renal clearance etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • The products from the living organisms metabolism are the secondary sources of soil organic matter that also includes the dead corpses of these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major (iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc) and minor (copper, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten) metal ions have become aligned with living organisms through the interplay of biogeochemical weathering and metabolic pathways involving the products of that weathering. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Postgate managed to culture large populations of the organism and his experience of competition informed his first paper, in which he showed that selenates are powerful competitive inhibitors of sulphate reduction. (wikipedia.org)