• phenotype
  • 2. Outline the nature and effects on the phenotype of numerical and structural changes of chromosomes. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Discerning the central role of chromosomes in governing the phenotype is an important skill in terms of pursuing a career in clinical and biomedical science. (aber.ac.uk)
  • The complete set of genetic determinants of an organism constitutes its genotype, and the observable characteristics constitute its phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of specific genetic material under a particular set of growth conditions determines the observable characteristics (phenotype) of the organism. (nih.gov)
  • Medaka is a small egg-laying freshwater fish that allows both genetic and embryological analyses and is one of the three vertebrate model organisms in which genome-wide phenotype-driven mutant screens were carried out 1 . (jove.com)
  • The gene then needs to be mapped by comparing the inheritance of the phenotype with other known genetic markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A consensus definition of the concept of epigenetic trait as "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence" was formulated at a Cold Spring Harbor meeting in 2008, although alternate definitions that include non-heritable traits are still being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • In classical genetics, Mendelian laws specify that the inheritance of traits passed from one generation to the next can only occur through sexual reproduction as information is passed down through the chromosomes of a species' germline cells (egg and sperm), and never through somatic (bodily) cells. (sott.net)
  • behaviour
  • 2) Changes in the form or behaviour of an organism during its life as a response to environmental stimuli, e.g. the formation of sun and shade leaves on the same tree and the acquisition of cold tolerance as a result of prior experience of low temperatures. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Aided by the rediscovery at the start of the 1900s of Gregor Mendel's earlier work, Boveri was able to point out the connection between the rules of inheritance and the behaviour of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • heritable
  • the heritable characteristics of an organism are consequences of the past and not anticipation of the present or future. (soton.ac.uk)
  • characteristics
  • 1) A set of characteristics of an organism which have evolved as a consequence of natural selection in its evolutionary past, and which result in a close match with features of the environment or constrain the organisms to life in a narrow range of environments. (soton.ac.uk)
  • species
  • At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was studied by Francisco Mojica at the University of Alicante in Spain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names for the organism are: Brewer's yeast, though other species are also used in brewing Ale yeast Top-fermenting yeast Baker's yeast Ragi yeast, in connection to making Tapai Budding yeast This species is also the main source of nutritional yeast and yeast extract. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell - the zygote - continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases in which this has been thoroughly investigated, the sperm-delivered sequences have been seen to remain extrachromosomal and to be sexually transmitted to the next generation in a non-Mendelian fashion . (sott.net)
  • The vast majority of living organisms use what is called the "standard" genetic code, which includes 64 possible permutations, or combinations, of three-letter nucleotide sequences that can be made from the four nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sequences play a key role in a bacterial defense system, and form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR/Cas9 that effectively and specifically changes genes within organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • High-energy phosphoric nucleotide of the nucleoside adensosine which functions as the principal energy carrying compound in the cells of all living organisms. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In animal cells, chromosomes reach their highest compaction level in anaphase during segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • These nucleotide repeats are involved in several important functions, such as the triggering of cellular, and possibly, tissue‐ and whole‐organism senescence (von Zglinicki, 2002 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • pairs
  • By inspection through the microscope, he counted 24 pairs, which would mean 48 chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola and Candidatus Tremblaya princeps, to more than 14,000,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacterium Sorangium cellulosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • The term "chromosome" was first suggested in 1888 by the German anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (1836 - 1921). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Selection
  • A simple screen would involve randomly mutating an organisms DNA with chemicals or radiation and then selection those that display the sought after trait. (wikipedia.org)