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  • dehydrogenase
  • One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of sugars by glycolysis which yield pyruvate that in turn is decarboxylated by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase generating acetyl-CoA according to the following reaction scheme: CH3C(=O)C(=O)O−pyruvate + HSCoA + NAD+ → CH3C(=O)SCoAacetyl-CoA + NADH + CO2 The product of this reaction, acetyl-CoA, is the starting point for the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transcriptional Φ( glpD-gfp ) fusion (a proxy of the glycerol-3-phosphate [G3P] dehydrogenase activity) linked the macroscopic phenotype to the expression of the glp genes. (asm.org)
  • Further indications came from the observation that glucose continued to be metabolized in tissues even in the presence of glycolysis inhibitors, such as fluoride and iodoacetate ions, inhibitors of enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12), respectively. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Glycerol Conversion to 1,3-Propanediol By Clostridium pasteurianum: Cloning And Expression Of The Gene Encoding 1,3-Propanediol Dehydrogenase," FEMS Microbiology Letters 154 (1997) pp 337-345. (lens.org)
  • enzymes
  • In Situ Reactivation Of Glycerol-Inactivated Coenzyme B12-Dependent Enzymes, Glycerol Dehydratase and Diol Dehydratase, " Journal Of Bacteriology , Sep. (lens.org)
  • In particular, the present invention provides novel thermophilic organisms and thermostable enzymes capable of catalyzing the fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol. (lens.org)
  • An alternate approach is to use enzymes, either in vivo (i.e., in a microorganism) or in vitro, to catalyze the fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol. (lens.org)
  • In view of the potential advantages inherent in the use of biological methods and reagents to produce 1,3-propanediol, their exists a need for the development and identification of novel microorganisms and enzymes capable of converting glycerol and other carbon substrates to 1,3-propanediol having superior characteristics. (lens.org)
  • aerobic
  • Cells performing aerobic respiration synthesize much more ATP, but not as part of glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces approximately 34 additional molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule, however most of these are produced by a vastly different mechanism to the substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While glycolysis is the primary fuel process for some organisms that do not require oxygen, such as yeast, aerobic organisms can only gain a small portion of their needed energy from this process. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • fatty acids
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crude
  • needs update] Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • L-Phe productivity of parent strain FUS4/pF81 (plasmid-encoded genes for aroF, aroB, aroL, pheA ) was compared on glucose and glycerol as C sources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.23 g l −1 h −1 , respectively), the combination of extra genes of glpX and tktA together led to an increase in maximal STY of about 80% (0.37 g l −1 h −1 ) and a carbon recovery of 0.26 mM C Phe /C Glycerol . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prolonged nongrowth regime of P. putida on glycerol could thus be traced to the regulatory device controlling the transcription of the glp genes. (asm.org)
  • We show that a prolonged nongrowing state of the bacterial population can be brought about by a distinct regulatory architecture of metabolic genes when cells face specific nutrients (e.g., glycerol). (asm.org)
  • organisms
  • In the tissues of many organisms, including mammals, glycolysis is a prelude to the complex metabolic machinery that ultimately converts pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water with the concomitant production of much ATP and the consumption of oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • byproduct
  • Production will increase as the EU directive 2003/30/EC are implemented, which required the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel across all member states by 2010, as glycerol is a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesize
  • Instead, it uses the synthetic nonoxidative glycolysis cycle to directly synthesize stoichiometric amounts of the two-carbon building block (acetyl-CoA), which is then converted to three-carbon metabolites to support growth. (pnas.org)
  • Although
  • vacuum is helpful due to the high boiling point of glycerol (290 °C). Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some cells are highly dependent on glycolysis for the generation of ATP, the amount of ATP generated per glucose molecule is actually quite small. (encyclopedia.com)