• Ox1r
  • Abbas MG, Shoji H, Soya S, Hondo M, Miyakawa T, Sakurai T. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of male Ox1r (−/−) mice showed implication of orexin receptor-1 in mood, anxiety, and social behavior. (springer.com)
  • Orexin receptor type 1 (Ox1R or OX1), also known as hypocretin receptor type 1 (HcrtR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCRTR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering the differences between pharmacologic blockade of Ox1r and the OKO mice, animals with RNAi mediated knockdown of orexin were then generated and analyzed to eliminate possible developmental effects of missing orexin. (nih.gov)
  • Orexin gene knockdown in the lateral hypothalamus in C57BL/6J mice resulted in blunted performance under both the variable ratio and progressive ratio schedules, resembling data obtained following Ox1r antagonism. (nih.gov)
  • mediates
  • Orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 signaling mediates Pavlovian cue-food conditioning and extinction. (springer.com)
  • Orexin signaling via the orexin 1 receptor mediates operant responding for food reinforcement. (nih.gov)
  • CB1 has also been noted to form a functional human receptor heterodimer in orexin neurons with OX1, the CB1-OX1 receptor, which mediates feeding behavior and certain physical processes such as cannabinoid-induced pressor responses which are known to occur through signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Although the activity of orexin neurons is thought to be influenced by various neuronal input as well as humoral factors, the direct consequences of changes in the activity of these neurons in an intact animal are largely unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These findings clearly show that changes in the activity of orexin neurons can alter the behavioral state of animals and also validate this novel approach for manipulating neuronal activity in awake, freely-moving animals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • peptide
  • orexin-B is a linear 28 amino acid residue peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orexin-A is a peptide composed of 33 amino acids including an N-terminal pyroglutamyl residue and two intramolecular disulfide bridges between cysteine residues in 6 and 12 and 7 and 14 positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most ligands acting on the orexin system so far are polypeptides modified from the endogenous agonists Orexin-A and Orexin-B, however there are some subtype-selective non-peptide antagonists available for research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are excited by the peptide ( 8 ), implying that orexin acts as a neuromodulator at glucosensitive cells, stimulating them under conditions of hunger. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • gene
  • Hypocretin" refers to the gene or genetic products and "orexin" refers to the protein, reflecting the differing approaches that resulted in its discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the expression of orexin gene is known to be down-regulated by hyperglycaemia in the rodent model of diabetes, such as ob/ob and db/db mice. (wiley.com)
  • rats
  • Orexin/hypocretin-1 receptor antagonism selectively reduces cue-induced feeding in sated rats and recruits medial prefrontal cortex and thalamus. (springer.com)
  • Moorman DE, Aston-Jones G. Orexin-1 receptor antagonism decreases ethanol consumption and preference selectively in high-ethanol-preferring Sprague-Dawley rats. (springer.com)
  • mice
  • Obesity in orexin knockout mice is a result of inability of brown preadipocytes to differentiate into brown adipose tissue (BAT), which in turn reduces BAT thermogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, orexin KO mice had essentially normal amounts of sleep and wake, but wake and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) bouts were very brief, with many more transitions between all behavioral states. (jneurosci.org)
  • In constant darkness, orexin KO mice had normal amplitude and timing of sleep-wake rhythms, providing no evidence for disordered circadian control. (jneurosci.org)
  • After depriving mice of sleep for 2-8 hr, orexin KO mice recovered their NREM and rapid eye movement sleep deficits at comparable rates and to the same extent as WT mice, with similar increases in EEG delta power, suggesting that their homeostatic control of sleep is normal. (jneurosci.org)
  • Instead, the fragmented behavior of orexin KO mice may be best described as behavioral state instability, with apparently low thresholds to transition between states. (jneurosci.org)
  • We critically tested these hypotheses by examining the sleep-wake behavior of orexin KO mice under conditions that assess endogenous circadian rhythms, the integrity of fundamental arousal systems, and the homeostatic control of sleep. (jneurosci.org)
  • Founder orexin KO mice were on a C57BL/6J-129/SvEV background, and their offspring were backcrossed with C57BL/6J mice for six to eight generations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent evidence indicates that orexin efficiently protects against the development of peripheral insulin resistance induced by ageing or high-fat feeding in mice. (wiley.com)
  • Moreover, the levels of orexin receptor-2 mRNA have been shown to decline in the brain of mice along with ageing. (wiley.com)
  • arousal
  • Thus, the sleepiness of orexin deficiency may simply be a consequence of inadequate activation of these fundamental arousal regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Obesity
  • Brain orexin promotes obesity resistance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In particular, the orexin receptor-2 signalling appears to confer resistance to diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity by improving leptin sensitivity. (wiley.com)
  • Orexin antagonists have multiple potential clinical applications including the treatment of drug addiction, insomnia, obesity and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptin
  • Therefore, orexin receptor controlling hypothalamic insulin/leptin actions may be a new target for possible future treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. (wiley.com)
  • nucleus
  • In addition to the histaminergic nucleus, the orexin system also projects onto the ventral tegmental area dopamine nucleus, locus ceruleus noradrenergic nucleus, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • The research determined how glucose inhibited a particular class of glucose-sensing neurons, which produce tiny proteins called orexins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is unknown how glucose suppresses the electrical activity of orexin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact mechanism of the potassium ion channels is unknown, but the experiments show that the presence of glucose inhibited the orexin neurons by acting on this class of potassium ion channels known as "tandem pore" channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conclude that orexin-containing islet cells, like those in the brain and gut, are glucosensitive and part of a network of glucose "sensing" cells that becomes activated when blood glucose levels fall. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • brain
  • We discuss how elevated orexin signaling capacity, in the context of a brain network modulating SPA, may play a major role in defining individual variability in SPA and NEAT. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Deficit amounts of orexin-A will make people sleepy and research suggests that by adding it back into the brain, narcoleptic effects will be reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • To control these functions indispensable for survival, orexin-expressing neurones integrate peripheral metabolic signals, interact with many types of neurones in the brain and modulate their activities via the activation of orexin-1 receptor or orexin-2 receptor. (wiley.com)
  • functional
  • There is substantial anatomical and functional overlap and systemic cross-talk between the endocannabinoid system and orexin system within the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • nasal
  • The sleep-deprived monkeys, which were given the nasal form of orexin-A, performed far better than the ones treated with injections. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • the CB1-OX1 receptor heterodimer produces a 100-fold amplification of the potency of the orexin receptor 1-mediated ERK pathway signaling. (wikipedia.org)