• apex
  • There are several types of exophthalmometers, Hertel and Luedde measure the distance of the corneal apex from the level of the lateral orbital rim while Naugle measures the relative difference between each eye: Hertel exophthalmometer: measurement is taken from the lateral orbital rim to the corneal apex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic canal contains the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) and the ophthalmic artery, and sits at the junction of the sphenoid sinus with the ethmoid air cells, superomedial and posterior to structures at the orbital apex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The roof (superior wall) is formed primarily by the orbital plate frontal bone, and also the lesser wing of sphenoid near the apex of the orbit. (wikipedia.org)
  • inferior
  • Naugle exophthalmometer uses fixation points slightly above and below the superior and inferior orbital rims (cheek bones and forehead). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a supraorbital foramen, an infraorbital foramen, a superior orbital fissure, an inferior orbital fissure and the optic canal, each of which contains structures that are crucial to normal eye functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The floor (inferior wall) is formed by the orbital surface of maxilla, the orbital surface of zygomatic bone and the minute orbital process of palatine bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • In comparison, orbital abscesses most commonly occur at a younger age, with a mean age of about 4 years. (vin.com)
  • In the eye, it is known as orbital cavernous hemangioma and is found in women more frequently than men, most commonly between the ages of 20-40. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ethmoid air cells are extremely thin, and form a structure known as the lamina papyracea, the most delicate bony structure in the skull, and one of the most commonly fractured bones in orbital trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • obstruction
  • Neoplasm should be considered in any patient presenting with NLD obstruction.In patients with an atypical presentation, including younger age and male gender, further workup is appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequent chronic epistaxis or blood-tinged nasal discharge Nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea Facial dysmorphism (when locally invasive) Conductive hearing loss from eustachian-tube obstruction Diplopia, which occurs secondary to erosion into superior orbital fissure and due to third and sixth nerve palsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Under the impression of nonspecific orbital inflammation, she was treated with oral prednisone with initial response. (nih.gov)
  • Idiopathic orbital inflammation has a varied clinical presentation depending on the involved tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pediatric IOI accounts for about 17% of cases idiopathic orbital inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proposes that organisms resembling Mollicutes cause orbital inflammation by destroying the cytoplasmic organelles of parasitized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histopathology of idiopathic orbital inflammation is described as nondiagnostic and diverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The cause of utilization behavior can be attributed to many diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Cerebrovascular disease, Frontotemporal dementia, neoplasm, and corticobasal degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary
  • He is a diplomate of the American Board of Ophthalmology, specializing in Ophthalmic Oncology and Pathology particularly in areas of retinoblastoma, external eye tumors, and primary and metastatic orbital neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • painful
  • It is the most common painful orbital mass in the adult population, and is associated with proptosis, cranial nerve palsy (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome), uveitis, and retinal detachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • superior
  • In 1896 he described a neurological disorder characterized by exophthalmos, diplopia, and anaesthesia in regions innervated by the trigeminal nerve, occurring with a traumatic collapse of the superior orbital fissure. (wikipedia.org)