• saliva
  • In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid gland is located in front of the ear, and it secretes its mostly serous saliva via the parotid duct (Stenson duct) into the mouth, usually opening roughly opposite the maxillary second molar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the salivary glands is to secrete saliva, which has a lubricating function, which protects the oral mucosa of the mouth during eating and speaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persons with reduced salivary flow or hyposalivation often suffer from dry mouth or xerostomia, which can result in severe dental caries (tooth decay) as a result of the loss of the protective effects of saliva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saliva also contains a catalytic enzyme called amylase which starts to act on food in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral mucosa heals faster than skin, suggesting that saliva may have properties that aid wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human saliva contains a wide variety of bacteria that are harmless in the mouth, but that may cause significant infection if introduced into a wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 65-70% of saliva in the oral cavity is produced by the submandibular glands, even though they are much smaller than the parotid glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 5% of saliva entering the oral cavity comes from these glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the oral environment, such as changes in the composition of saliva, may induce neuropathy or interruption of nerve transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral candidiasis - A loss of the antimicrobial actions of saliva may also lead to opportunistic infection with Candida species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lack of saliva pooling in the floor of the mouth during examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • betel quid
  • An appearance termed Betel chewer's mucosa describes morsicatio buccarum with red-staining of mucosa due to betel quid ingredients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition is remotely linked to oral cancers and is associated with areca nut or betel quid chewing, a habit similar to tobacco chewing, is practiced predominantly in Southeast Asia and India, dating back thousands of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesion
  • It is often mistaken for oral cancer, but the lesion is not neoplastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smokeless tobacco keratosis (abbreviated to STK, also termed snuff dippers' keratosis, smokeless tobacco-associated keratosis, snuff pouch, snuff dipper's lesion, tobacco pouch keratosis, or spit tobacco keratosis) is a condition which develops on the oral mucosa (the lining of the mouth) in response to smokeless tobacco use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk of the lesion developing into oral cancer (generally squamous cell carcinoma and its variant verrucous carcinoma) is relatively low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the superficial epithelial cells of the epidermis or of the mucosa are lost, and the lesion can reach the depth of the basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulceration
  • The two most common causes of oral ulceration are local trauma (e.g. rubbing from a sharp edge on a broken filling) and aphthous stomatitis ("canker sores"), a condition characterized by recurrent formation of oral ulcers for largely unknown reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Common causes of oral ulceration include rubbing on sharp edges of teeth, fillings, crowns, false teeth (dentures), or braces (orthodontic appliances). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people cause damage inside their mouths themselves, either through an absentminded habit or as a type of deliberate self-harm (factitious ulceration). (wikipedia.org)
  • Iatrogenic ulceration can also occur during dental treatment, when incidental abrasions to the soft tissues of the mouth are common. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Psoriasis in the mouth is very rare, in contrast to lichen planus, another common papulosquamous disorder that commonly involves both the skin and mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • When psoriasis involves the oral mucosa (the lining of the mouth), it may be asymptomatic, but it may appear as white or grey-yellow plaques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crohn's disease is sometimes termed orofacial granulomatosis when it involves the mouth alone). (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • Some diseases which involve other parts of the GI tract can manifest in the mouth, alone or in combination, including: Gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause acid erosion of the teeth and halitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases of the teeth include baby-bottle tooth decay, epulis, meth mouth and Hutchinson's teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • A burning sensation in the mouth can be a symptom of another disease when local or systemic factors are found to be implicated, and this is not considered to be burning mouth syndrome,[needs update][needs update] which is a syndrome of medically unexplained symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Nearly all people with Behçet's disease present with some form of painful ulcerations inside the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smokeless tobacco use is also accompanied by increased risk of other oral conditions such as dental caries (tooth decay), periodontitis (gum disease), attrition (tooth wear) and staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes indicative of disease are seen as alterations in the oral mucosa lining the mouth, which can reveal systemic conditions, such as diabetes or vitamin deficiency, or the local effects of chronic tobacco or alcohol use. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the disease progresses, the jaws become rigid to the point that the person is unable to open the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the initial phase of the disease, the mucosa feels leathery with palpable fibrotic bands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group IVB: Disease is most advanced, with premalignant and malignant changes throughout the mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • No related signs of disease are found in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • stomatitis
  • citation needed] Most mouth ulcers that are not associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis are caused by local trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, burning mouth pain may be a symptom of allergic contact stomatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ulcers
  • Several GI diseases, especially those associated with malabsorption, can cause recurrent mouth ulcers, atrophic glossitis, and angular cheilitis (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouth ulcers are very common, occurring in association with many diseases and by many different mechanisms, but usually there is no serious underlying cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouth ulcers often cause pain and discomfort, and may alter the person's choice of food while healing occurs (e.g. avoiding acidic or spicy foods and beverages). (wikipedia.org)
  • intra-oral
  • Microwave ovens sometimes produce food which is cold externally and very hot internally, and this has led to a rise in the frequency of intra-oral thermal burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensation
  • It may also present with a burning sensation in the mouth, and a lattice-like network of white lines near sites of erosion (Wickham striae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning sensation in the mouth with no underlying dental or medical cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with burning mouth syndrome may also have a dry mouth sensation where no cause can be found such as reduced salivary flow, tingling in the mouth, or an altered taste or smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In about 50% of cases of burning mouth sensation no identifiable cause is apparent, these cases are termed (primary) BMS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several local and systemic factors can give a burning sensation in the mouth without any clinical signs, and therefore may be misdiagnosed as BMS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some causes of a burning mouth sensation may be accompanied by clinical signs in the mouth or elsewhere on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth, which is often (but not always) associated with hypofunction of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral dysesthesia - a burning or tingling sensation in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • digestive
  • In addition to its primary role as the beginning of the digestive system, in humans the mouth also plays a significant role in communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral administration because the medication does not pass through the digestive system and thereby avoids first pass metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouth is the beginning of the digestive system and a substantial part of the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucositis
  • MuGard is a novel, ready-to-use mucoadhesive oral wound rinse for the management of oral mucositis , a debilitating side effect of many anticancer treatments. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Updated clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of mucositis recommend the use of a preventive oral care regimen as part of routine supportive care along with a therapeutic oral care regimen if mucositis develops. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The market for the treatment of oral mucositis is estimated to be in excess of $1 billion world-wide. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In a comparison of cancer patients receiving standard mucositis care with those patients receiving MuGard, the incidence and severity of mucositis was significantly lower in the MuGard treated group using a validated scale for the assessment of oral mucositis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mouth soreness and oral mucositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Bacterial sialadentitis is usually caused by ascending organisms from the oral cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermal burns usually result from placing hot food or beverages in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical burns in the mouth are usually caused by chewing on live electrical wiring (an act that is relatively common among young children). (wikipedia.org)
  • thick
  • It presents itself in the mouth, most frequently as a thick, bilateral, symmetrical white plaques with a spongy, corrugated or velvety texture. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco
  • Generally it appears as a white patch, located at the point where the tobacco is held in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalyst, like primer, is used to fix the issues of a dry mouth or dry tobacco, however, the dipping tobacco is already currently in the user's lip. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rinser is used when the user is finished with their tobacco, and it is swished around the user's mouth in a "mouthwash like" fashion to dispose of an excess tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucus
  • The secretion produced is a mixture of both serous fluid and mucus, and enters the oral cavity via the submandibular duct or Wharton duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs
  • Whilst salivary flow rates are normal and there are no clinical signs of a dry mouth to explain a complaint of dry mouth, levels of salivary proteins and phosphate may be elevated and salivary pH or buffering capacity may be reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • defect
  • It is caused by a mutations in certain genes coding for keratin, which causes a defect in the normal process of keratinization of the mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • Also, a down-turned mouth can be part of the presentation of Prader-Willi syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with Down syndrome and cretinism have delayed tooth eruption, and prolonged thumb-sucking may cause problems with mouth growth and tooth alignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrointestinal
  • The mouth is the first part of the gastrointestinal tract and is equipped with several structures that begin the first processes of digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though anatomically part of the GI tract, diseases of the mouth are often not considered alongside other gastrointestinal diseases. (wikipedia.org)