• fetal
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irving, "'New age' embryology text books: 'Pre-embryo', 'pregnancy' and abortion counseling: Implications for fetal research", Linacre Quarterly May 1994, 61(2):42-62. (lifeissues.net)
  • The issue arises in a number of fields including science, religion, philosophy, and law, and is most acute in debates relating to abortion, stem cell research, reproductive rights, and fetal rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • They have lost the ability to differentiate to all cell types needed for a complete embryo development, but they still have the potential to differentiate to any other cell type (up to day 14th post-fertilization). (orthodoxwiki.org)
  • In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this point and for the early part of the blastula stage is controlled by maternal mRNA, so called because it was produced in the egg prior to fertilization and is therefore exclusively from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • After fertilization, events are already occurring in the one cell stage embryo to allow for the first asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • This reprogramming is likely required for totipotency of the newly formed embryo and erasure of acquired epigenetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • In many animals such as Drosophila and Xenopus, the mid blastula transition (MBT) is a crucial step in development during which the maternal mRNA is degraded and control over development is passed to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two processes shift the control of the embryo from the maternal mRNA to the nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Eggan's research goals at Harvard were to understand how nuclear transplantation works, and to make stem cells that carry genes for specific diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's. (wikipedia.org)
  • infertility
  • As there is much time and effort put towards the creation of each strain, a disappointment (if not a danger) arises when one of the mutated animals is unable to reproduce due to unforeseen infertility. (redorbit.com)
  • Cloning
  • And "reproductive cloning" means implanting a new human embryo who is a human being into a woman for purposes of reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Cumulus cells found around oocytes in the ovarian follicle are generally the preferred cell type for cloning efforts. (redorbit.com)
  • What the researchers have demonstrated for the first time is that the effective cloning of mice can be achieved using the nuclei of peripheral blood cells. (redorbit.com)
  • The definition proposed in this paper was subsequently adopted by the Australian Parliament in the Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 to replace the previously used definition. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • The measure specifically bans human cloning, but would permit all federally allowed stem cell research in the state. (chipbennett.net)
  • cells
  • Once an embryo has more than 12 cells it is not possible to determine whether any individual cell has divided within a 24-hour period. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Embryonic stem cells, as their name suggests, are derived from the early embryo. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • In Australia, human embryonic stem cells are derived from human embryos that are excess to the needs of patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment programs and have been donated to research by the couple for whom they were created. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this context, it often refers to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells from mature cells such as adult fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cattle, when individual cells from 4- and 8-cell embryos and implanted in different foster mothers, they can develop normally into calves and this technique has been used routinely within cattle breeding schemes for over 10 years. (chipbennett.net)
  • Our work will also be welcome news for the many scientists performing basic research on iPS cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • How the finding of mutations might affect clinical use of stem cells generated from adult cells is the subject of an ongoing debate," said Dr. Dieter Egli, NYSCF Senior Research Fellow, NYSCF - Robertson Investigator, Assistant Professor in Pediatrics & Molecular Genetics at Columbia University, and senior author on the paper. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is important to note that both types of techniques led to cells that had more of these aberrations than embryonic stem cells derived from an unfertilized human oocyte, or than embryonic stem cells derived from leftover IVF embryos. (eurekalert.org)
  • This single cell divides prolifically to give rise to the embryo, where progressively cells exit cell cycle, specialize for a particular function and differentiate. (blogspot.in)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are created by growing young embryos in artificial culture conditions. (blogspot.in)
  • In 1998 James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin created the first embryonic stem cells from human embryos donated by individuals after informed consent. (blogspot.in)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experiment, described Thursday in the Journal , involves injecting human stem cells into the embryo of a pig, then implanting the embryo in the uterus of a sow and allowing it to grow. (christogenea.org)
  • Eggan's work as of 2007[update] has succeeded in developing a technique of merging stem and skin cells that has obtained considerable public attention as a possible avenue to avoid moral objections regarding stem cell research in the context of serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major step toward someday possibly defusing the central objection to stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries sparked extensive debate in the United States Congress, with opponents of the use of embryonic stem cells from fetuses arguing that these or similar methods of creating stem cells from skin might be eventually used instead to satisfy the conflicting demands of medical research and morals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature egg cells are produced by mitotic divisions, and these cells directly develop into embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • zygote
  • When this is done the cytoplasmic factors effect the nucleus to become a zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are initially distributed uniformly throughout the zygote and then become polarized with the creation of the posterior pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The technique, which involves sucking the pronuclei from the donor oocyte with a micro-manipulated pipette, Turnbull explained, can result in the transfer of small amounts of donor cytoplasm containing donor mitochondria, as well. (the-scientist.com)
  • reproductive
  • Wrong, well at least not so for many proponents of destructive and reproductive research involving the early human embryo such as Dr. Tauer. (lifeissues.net)
  • Given that the same article about Lancet notes the reproductive research work of Australian Alan Trouson, Tauer's remarks and persuasions - and past professional work - are not surprising. (lifeissues.net)
  • What is an excess assisted reproductive technology (ART) embryo? (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • divisions
  • Play media In C. elegans, a series of asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo are critical in setting up the anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral, and left/right axes of the body plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • stage
  • the embryo achieves a stage called blastocyst. (orthodoxwiki.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoele. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan himself is cautious about his team's work, with an early stage 2005 profile in Nature noting there was still much work to do: The hybrids still contain two nuclei: one from a skin cell and one from an embryonic stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomes may not separate at one of the two anaphases (called restitutional meiosis), or the nuclei produced may fuse or one of the polar bodies may fuse with the egg cell at some stage during its maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • As the team notes, the granulocytes' performance was poorer than expected due to a much higher rate of fragmentation in early embryos. (redorbit.com)
  • Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • axis
  • In Drosophila , localization of bicoid and nanos RNA is required for establishment of the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo (for review see St Johnston and Nüsslein-Volhard, 1992 ). (rupress.org)
  • defects
  • Eggan began to explore both this process and also the reasons that cloned animals often appeared to develop abnormally, with organ defects and immunological problems - his first contact with stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • successive
  • Since 1970s successive American governments headed by Ronald Reagan, George H W Bush, Bill Clinton and George W Bush have instituted a series of bans on embryonic research. (blogspot.in)
  • scientists
  • The Internet link is too long to display here for the article "Scientists Create A Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo - Raising the possibility of inter-species organ transplants", so search 'Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo' to find the posting. (christogenea.org)