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  • Xenoturbella
  • The monophyly of Xenacoelomorpha soon became established, but its position as either a basal bilaterian clade or a deuterostome remained unresolved until very recently, when two new studies, with increased gene and taxon sampling, again placed Xenoturbella as the sister group of Acoelomorpha within Xenacoelomorpha, and placed Xenacoelomorpha as sister to Nephrozoa (Protostomia plus Deuterostomia), and therefore the basalmost bilaterian phylum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterostome
  • The deuterostome affiliations were then recovered by studies that indicate a basal position of this phylum within the deuterostomes or in a sister group relationship with the Ambulacraria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal
  • The data shows that all the animal phyla have similar genes and that there aren't very many genes whose origins can be traced to the Cambrian. (blogspot.com)
  • His [Meyer's] case against current scientific explanations of the relatively rapid appearance of the animal phyla rests on the claim that the origin of new animal body plans requires vast amounts of novel genetic information coupled with the unsubstantiated assertion that this new genetic information must include many new protein folds. (blogspot.com)
  • However, genomic studies have suggested that the neurons of Ctenophora, which differ in many ways from other animal neurons, evolved independently from those of the other animals, and increasing awareness of the differences between the groups has persuaded more recent authors to classify the two as separate phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In fact, our present understanding of morphogenesis indicates that new phyla were not made by new genes but largely emerged through the rewiring of the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of already existing genes (1). (blogspot.com)