• retroviruses
  • Oncogenes were first discovered in retroviruses ( viruses containing the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and RNA , rather than DNA ) that were found to cause cancer in many animals (e.g., feline leukemia virus, simian sarcoma virus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic differences in oncogenes and/or TSGs in tumor samples may correlate with biological phenotypes or clinical outcomes such as staging, therapy selection, metastasis, or survival rate. (qiagen.com)
  • Numerous studies using human cancer cell lines indicate that although these cells are aneuploid and carry several genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, they can also be highly dependent on the activity of a single oncogene for continued cell proliferation and survival ( Table 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples
  • The most convincing evidence for the concept of oncogene addiction comes from the increasing number of examples of the therapeutic efficacy of antibodies or drugs that target specific oncogenes in human cancers ( Table 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Examples include imatinib, which targets the bcr-abl oncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia and also targets the c-kit oncogene in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and gefitinib and erlotinib, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer, and glioblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are, however, several examples of a true escape from a given state of oncogene addiction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • tumors
  • Example of three colon tumors (up) whose growth was inhibited (down) a molecule of RNA (ribonucleic acid) which acts as identified anti-oncogene. (innovations-report.com)
  • We believe this discovery will be the starting point to find many other oncogenes and anti-oncogenes that coexist in regions of our genome, that when their life together deteriorates, contribute to the development of human tumors," said Dr. Esteller. (innovations-report.com)
  • receptors
  • Oncogenes generally code for growth factors and their receptors, enzymes related to transduction signal or for DNA transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • sarcoma
  • The first confirmed oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed src (pronounced sarc as in sarcoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Src (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma) is a proto-oncogene encoding a tyrosine kinase originally discovered by J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, for which they were awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • addiction
  • The efficacy of this strategy requires novel methods, including integrative genomics and systems biology, to identify the state of oncogene addiction (i.e., the "Achilles heel") in specific cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Combination therapy may also be required to prevent the escape of cancers from a given state of oncogene addiction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • expression
  • Dependence on the continued expression of other oncogenes for the maintenance of the neoplastic state has also been seen in other tissues in murine models ( Table 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • miRCancer: microRNA Cancer Association Database HMDD: Human microRNA Disease Database PhenomiR: a knowledgebase for microRNA expression in diseases and biological processes Oncomir A collection of microRNA expression databases MicroRNA-17, or miR-17, is a member of the OncomiR-1 family and one of the first miRNA to be identified as an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • A known oncogene previously associated with carcinomas of the breast, liver, ovaries, and colon appears to suppress the growth of melanoma cells, a team of researchers reported recently in Cell Reports. (modernmedicine.com)
  • cancer
  • A study coordinated by Manel Esteller, Director of the program of epigenetics and cancer biology at the Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Professor of genetics at the University of Barcelona and ICREA researcher, has discovered the existence of an antitumor molecule that originates within an oncogene. (innovations-report.com)
  • Later on the term "oncogene" was rediscovered in 1969 by National Cancer Institute scientists George Todaro and Robert Heubner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncogene is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group addressing cancer cell genetics and the structure and function of oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In the small GTPase family it is classified in the RAS domain, a special group of oncogenes and oncoproteins that take part in the synthesis of molecules related to cell reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In 1976 Drs. Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes were activated proto-oncogenes, found in many organisms including humans. (wikipedia.org)