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  • Genetic
  • Genetic differences in oncogenes and/or TSGs in tumor samples may correlate with biological phenotypes or clinical outcomes such as staging, therapy selection, metastasis, or survival rate. (qiagen.com)
  • Numerous studies using human cancer cell lines indicate that although these cells are aneuploid and carry several genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, they can also be highly dependent on the activity of a single oncogene for continued cell proliferation and survival ( Table 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • retroviruses
  • Oncogenes were first discovered in retroviruses ( viruses containing the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and RNA , rather than DNA ) that were found to cause cancer in many animals (e.g., feline leukemia virus, simian sarcoma virus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Examples
  • Examples include imatinib, which targets the bcr-abl oncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia and also targets the c-kit oncogene in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and gefitinib and erlotinib, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer, and glioblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are, however, several examples of a true escape from a given state of oncogene addiction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Viruses
  • Certain oncogenes of vertebrates are derived from viruses (see oncogenic ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Finally Oncovirinae, viruses that contain an oncogene, are categorized as oncogenic because they trigger the growth of tumorous tissues in the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • sarcoma
  • The first confirmed oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed src (pronounced sarc as in sarcoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Src (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma) is a proto-oncogene encoding a tyrosine kinase originally discovered by J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, for which they were awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Dependence on the continued expression of other oncogenes for the maintenance of the neoplastic state has also been seen in other tissues in murine models ( Table 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • miRCancer: microRNA Cancer Association Database HMDD: Human microRNA Disease Database PhenomiR: a knowledgebase for microRNA expression in diseases and biological processes Oncomir A collection of microRNA expression databases MicroRNA-17, or miR-17, is a member of the OncomiR-1 family and one of the first miRNA to be identified as an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • A known oncogene previously associated with carcinomas of the breast, liver, ovaries, and colon appears to suppress the growth of melanoma cells, a team of researchers reported recently in Cell Reports. (modernmedicine.com)
  • cancer
  • Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later on the term "oncogene" was rediscovered in 1969 by National Cancer Institute scientists George Todaro and Robert Heubner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncogene is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group addressing cancer cell genetics and the structure and function of oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the oncogene is transfected back into a chicken, it can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In the small GTPase family it is classified in the RAS domain, a special group of oncogenes and oncoproteins that take part in the synthesis of molecules related to cell reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In 1976 Drs. Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes were activated proto-oncogenes, found in many organisms including humans. (wikipedia.org)